By: Daniël P. Melters, Ph.D
Social health policy
Paid maternity leave reduces infant death
In developing nations, more generous maternity leave can save the lives of babies, according to a recent study in PLoS Medicine. The paper estimates that each extra month of maternity leave is linked to about eight fewer infant deaths for each 1,000 live births, or a reduction of 13% in infant mortality. The advantages of paid maternity leave are that mothers-to-be will be able to make use of health services before and after childbirth as their income and jobs are protected. It will also reduce anxiety in mother, improving her health besides that of her baby, the study says. Maternity leave also increase the likelihood that mothers will breastfeed their child and stick to vaccination schedules, potentially increasing the power of paid maternity leave.
“Based on our analysis, I’m fairly convinced that increasing the duration of paid leave is an effective way to reducing infant mortality”, the lead author Nandi from McGill University says. He adds that his team controlled for other factors that reduce infant death, such as gross domestic product and national health spending. The researchers compared rates of infant death in two groups of low- and middle-income countries, covering 300,000 life births between 2000 and 2008.
Child health researcher Zulfiqar Bhutta from the University of Toronto is cautious about extrapolating the results from this study over all low- and middle-income countries. “The major limitation here is the assumption that maternity leave policies in a country are universally applied, which they are not.” A cautionary note that Nandi agrees with on the end of implementation, as they did not study this. He also points to research in other areas, which suggest that policies improving the conditions of employees tend to have spillover effects. (PLoS Medicine)
Committee to study oversight of GMOs
The United States is revamping its rules for regulating GMOs, which collectively are known as the Coordinated Framework for Regulation of Biotechnology. To that end, the National Academies of Sciences have convened a committee that is charged with predicted what advances will be made in biotechnology products over the next 5-10 years. It will hold its first meeting on April 18th. To date, GMOs are regulated by three US agencies: US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and US Department of Agriculture (USDA). The USDA’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) regulates any genetically engineered organisms that may pose a risk to plant health. In addition, GMOs may still undergo a voluntary review at the FDA (as Oxitec did with their GMO mosquito), or face oversight by the EPA.
Recently, the USDA allowed a mushroom that has been genetically modified with the new gene-editing technology CRISPR (removing several base-pairs knocking-out a gene responsible for browning) to allowed on the US market without going through a review process. It is one of about 30 GMOs to sidestep the USDA regulatory system in the past five years. In each case, the USDA deemed that each GMO did not qualify, as something the agency must regulate. In other words, the USDA itself acknowledges that it might be overregulating some crops if they have traits that have already been scrutinized.
This is of course not to say that no oversight is needed. The use of gene editing technology in humans is still controversial, especially in human embryos, as became clear again by a second study published by a Chinese group where they used CRISPR to alter human embryos, or the approval of project in the United Kingdom. New hurdles will be encountered as well. The successful removing of HIV from an HIV infected cell by CRISPR was hailed, but its success was short-lived as HIV found a way to outsmart the power of the current CRISPR technology. The fast moving pace at which gene-editing technology is developing and how its use if being exploited highlights the need for the US regulatory agencies to keep up with these chances both from economical growth as well as a public safety perspective. (Heidi Ledford, Nature)
Precision Medicine Initiative
Dishman to lead PMI Cohort
Dr. Francis Collins, the director of the National Institutes of Health, has announced that the permanent director of the Precision Medicine Initiative (PMI) Cohort Program will be Eric Dishman, taking over the helm from interim director Dr. Josephine Briggs. Dishman, 48, who now heads the Health and Life Sciences Group at Intel Corporation in Santa Clara, California, will start his new job next month. He is not an obvious choice to lead the cohort program as he does not have a background in genomics or large, long-term health studies, nor a PhD or MD degree. He does have a trove of knowledge about health technologies, which will play a key role in the PMI-cohort. At Intel, he oversaw research on devices to help Alzheimer’s patients and elderly living independently. Dishman also battled and overcome a rare type of kidney cancer at the age of 23. Several years ago he has his tumor sequences, which pointed to a treatment that might help save his life. According to Collins, Dishman is the right person to the lead PMI-Cohort program with his “wealth of health innovation experience … as a social scientist and researcher, entrepreneur and business leader, patient and patient advocate, and policy advocate and thought leader.” (Joselyn Kaiser, Science Insider)
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