Science Policy For All

Because science policy affects everyone.

Science Diplomacy Between the US and Cuba

with one comment

By: Steven Witte, B.Sc.

Photo source: pixabay.com

Located less than 90 miles apart, Cuba and the United States share many of the same environmental and public health challenges. Invasive species such as lionfish, African catfish, and marabou are threatening native species. Oil drilling in the Gulf of Mexico poses a potential risk for an environmental disaster, and tourism is threatening coral reefs and other important ecosystems. And recently, the Zika virus and chikungunya have been spreading throughout the Caribbean. It is predicted the viruses may make their way to Cuba and eventually even parts of the United States. By working together, these two countries could develop better strategies to solve these problems. But cooperation between the US and Cuba has been extremely difficult for several decades because of strained relations between the two nations.

In the past, American and Cuban scientists have successfully collaborated together. In the mid-nineteenth century, the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC, established ties with two Cuban institutions in Havana: the Economic Society of Friends of the Country, and the Royal Academy of Medical, Physical, and Natural Sciences. Soon after, Jesse Lazear and Carlos Finlay, scientists from the USA and Cuba, respectively, collaboratively made crucial discoveries concerning the transmission of yellow fever, leading to effective preventive measures. During the Cold War, however, diplomatic relations between the United States and Cuba were severed. Further, embargoes were put in place preventing trade between the countries. As a result, Cuba could no longer receive funding or equipment from the United States, except in very specific circumstances. It also became difficult for American scientists to travel to Cuba for meetings, thus affecting scientific relationships.

Re-establishing scientific collaborations with Cuba would benefit both the US and Cuba in a number of ways. Vaccines or drugs are currently unavailable for Zika and Chikungunya viruses, and the best option is to closely monitor the spread of these diseases. Sharing data with Cuba, which already has observation programs in place, would help identify outbreaks and develop responses. The Cuban biotechnology industry has many products that could be used by Americans – for example, Cuba is an important producer of vaccines, exporting them to many other countries. More recently, a company in Cuba has developed a drug for treating severe diabetic foot ulcers, which can prevent the need for amputations. Other companies have products to prevent or treat many diseases that impact U.S agriculture and cattle, such as a vaccine for serious tick infestations. Cuba would benefit from scientific expertise in America, as well as funding and equipment that could be provided, as many of the research institutions in Cuba currently operate on small budgets. Allowing Cuban scientists to attend conferences in America would provide a healthy exchange of knowledge and expertise.

Over the past several decades, many attempts have been made to re-establish scientific relationships with Cuba. During President Jimmy Carter’s administration, the National Science Foundation (NSF) considered establishing links with Cuban research institutions and tried to finance joint research projects, but these goals were never realized. More recently, the Center for Science Diplomacy of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) has made several visits to Cuba to promote scientific cooperation. In 2014, the AAAS and the Cuban Academy of Sciences signed a historic agreement in which both organizations agreed to work together on four scientific areas: infectious diseases, cancer, antimicrobial resistance, and neuroscience. Following this agreement, Cuban and American scientists met in Washington, DC, and discussed plans to create further agreements on collaborations for ocean science research and conservation. In 2015, President Barack Obama’s administration re-established diplomatic ties with Cuba. Although this is beneficial for fostering scientific relationships, many barriers still remain. The trade embargo is still in effect, for example, and it is still difficult for scientists to travel to Cuba. However, progress has been made. The United States has enacted policy to allow Cubans to get educational grants and scholarships. And scientific equipment can now be donated to Cuba, unless it has potential military applications.

Going forward, several ideas have been proposed to foster scientific relationships between Cuba and the United States. High-level governmental agreements could go a long way in enabling scientific collaboration. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that work internationally in partnership with governments to try and solve global problems could also catalyze shared scientific programs. For example, the Clinton Climate Initiative has partnered with the governments of several island nations and helped them reduce their dependence on fossil fuels by using renewable energy. Others have suggested that the United States shut down its Naval base in Guantánamo Bay, and re-purpose the facilities as a marine research institution and peace park.

Regardless of the form it takes, cooperation between scientists in Cuba and the United States could benefit both countries as they address emerging environmental, public health, and biomedical problems. In addition, cooperation through science could pave the way to peaceful cooperation in other arenas between both countries, as they re-establish connections following several decades of unfavorable relations.

Advertisements

Written by sciencepolicyforall

May 18, 2016 at 9:00 am

Posted in Essays

Tagged with ,

One Response

Subscribe to comments with RSS.

  1. Reblogged this on Picking Up The Tabb and commented:
    There are many very bright scientists in Cuba who would benefit from an overseas collaboration. I am delighted to see that the barriers to these relationships are beginning to fall!

    dtabb1973

    May 19, 2016 at 3:43 am


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: