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Science Policy Around the Web – October 18, 2016

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By: Agila Somasundaram, PhD

Source: WHO

Global Health

Why is the news about TB so bad?

The Global Tuberculosis Report released recently by the World Health Organization (WHO) reveals that the Tuberculosis (TB) epidemic is larger than previously estimated. TB has generally been considered a disease of the past, but the new report estimates that around 10.4 million people were infected in 2015, 480,000 of the new cases being multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). TB claimed on average more than 34,000 lives a week, exceeding the death toll by Ebola. 60 % of the new cases were seen in India, Indonesia, China, Nigeria, Pakistan and South Africa.

TB is especially difficult to combat in the developing world, for many reasons. Firstly, it is difficult to accurately estimate the number of TB cases. For example, WHO estimates that about half of the TB cases in India are not reported to health authorities. In parts of Central Africa, the lack of resources to carry out large-scale surveys results in insufficient data on the epidemic. Secondly, crowded living conditions and poor nutrition make people more susceptible to the disease. TB is also financially draining on the families of those infected, resulting in poor treatment. Thirdly, new drugs (Bedaquiline, Delamanid) that have been developed to treat MDR-TB are being used very cautiously to avoid the development of drug-resistance and side effects. And last, current efforts to cure TB are focused on symptomatic cases, and not pre-symptomatic or early stage cases.

The WHO report states, “Global actions and investments fall far short of those needed to end the global TB epidemic.” Dr. Margaret Chan, Director General of WHO said, “We face an uphill battle to reach the global targets for tuberculosis. There must be a massive scale-up of efforts, or countries will continue to run behind this deadly epidemic…” (Rina Shaikh-Lesko, NPR)

Science Diplomacy

U.S. and Cuban biomedical researchers are free to collaborate

The United States reconciled with Cuba in 2014, and has been removing several sanctions since then. Along with ease of trade and travel between the two countries, scientists from the two nations can now collaborate more easily with each other. Earlier, scientists in the US had to go through a “a very involved and detailed process” with the Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) to get a license to conduct research with Cuban scientists, and these licenses typically lasted only a year or two. Also, what kinds of collaborations were permissible was unclear under the old rules.

Both the US and Cuban scientists welcome the new move. Dr. Pedro Valdés-Sosa, research director at the Cuban Neuroscience Center in Havana said on his visit to the US, “…Everywhere I went there were concrete ideas for collaborations that would benefit the people of both countries. These new measures pave the way for cooperation.” Also, Cuban scientists can now receive research funding from the US government, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) can review drugs developed in Cuba, and FDA-approved drugs can be imported from Cuba and sold in the US. Dr. Thomas Schwaab of Roswell Park Cancer Institute in Buffalo, New York wonders whether Cuban scientists who have ongoing collaborations with scientists in other parts of the world would welcome working with the US, given that they were shunned for so long. But the Cuban scientists “are very proud of what they’ve achieved,” says Dr. Schwaab. (Richard Stone, Science)

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Written by sciencepolicyforall

October 18, 2016 at 9:00 am

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