Science Policy For All

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Science Policy Around the Web – November 25, 2016

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By: Alida Palmisano, PhD

Source: pixabay

Climate Change

2016 Set to Break Heat Record Despite Slowdown in Emissions

An article published in the Washington Post discusses recent news about climate change. Temperatures around the globe are reaching a record high this year, according to a report from the U.N. weather agency. Another report from the World Meteorological Organization showed that while emissions of a key global warming gas have flattened out in the past three years, preliminary data through October showed that world temperatures are 1.2 degrees Celsius (2.2 degrees Fahrenheit) above pre-industrial levels. That’s getting close to the limit set by the global climate agreement adopted in Paris last year. It calls for limiting the temperature rise since the industrial revolution to 2 degrees C or even 1.5 degrees C. Environmental groups and climate scientists said the report underscores the need to quickly reduce emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases blamed for warming the planet.

Another recent report delivered some positive news, showing global CO2 emissions have flattened out in the past three years. However, the authors of the study cautioned that it is far too early to declare that the slowdown, mainly caused by declining coal use in China, is a permanent trend. Even if China’s emissions have stabilized, growth in India and other developing countries could push global CO2 levels higher again. Even the recent election in the United States — the world’s No. 2 carbon polluter — could also have a significant impact.

Some researchers stressed that it’s not enough for global emissions to stabilize, saying they need to drop toward zero for the world to meet the goals of the Paris deal. “Worryingly, the reductions pledged by the nations under the Paris Agreement are not sufficient to achieve this,” said climate scientist Chris Rapley of University College London. (Karl Ritter, Washington Post)

Information and Technology

Facebook, Google Take Steps To Confront Fake News

Are we, as a society, really prepared for today’s way of receiving information from the web? In a recent article, NPR reporter Aarti Shahani talks about the issues related to viral fake news.

Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg has addressed (multiple times) the issue of fake news, which are inaccurate or simply false information that appears on the Web in the guise of journalism. Zuckerberg said that the notion that fake news on his platform influenced the election in any way is “a pretty crazy idea.” But many disagree; and as a former employee, Antonio Garcia-Martinez says Zuckerberg’s comment sounds “more than a little disingenuous here.” Facebook makes money by selling ad space inside its news feed. It also makes money as a broker between its advertisers and other online companies. A company spokesperson told NPR that it is not doing business with fake news apps as these outside parties are not allowed to use the ad network. But the company did not address the reality that fake news in the Facebook news feed attract people and clicks, which translate to money.

Google, another tech giant, said that it is working on a policy to keep its ads off fake news sites. Garcia-Martinez says that it’s “ambitious” of Google to make this promise. “Where does it end? Are they just going to limit it to advertising?” he asks. “Are they not going to show search results of things that are obviously false? I mean, even false content itself is free speech, even though it’s false speech.”

These issues are emerging in today’s society because of technological advances; however policy and legislation struggle to keep up with the evolving way we interact with the world. (Aarti Shahani, NPR)

Public Health

Could the FDA be Dismantled Under Trump?

A recent article reflects on how the President-elect may change the work of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Public health policies shift may include a surrender of the FDA’s rules for off-label promotion of drugs, the importation of more drugs from other countries, and fewer requirements for clinical trials (the gold standard for determining whether medicines are safe and effective). “Between a Trump presidency and a radically pro-business Congress, the next few years may see a removal of numerous consumer protections,” said Michael Jacobson, co-founder and president of the Center for Science in the Public Interest.

The FDA’s balancing act between patient protection and the drug and device industry’s push for a quicker path to market has never been easy. Over the past few years, spurred by patient advocacy groups and much of the pharmaceutical industry, lawmakers have fought over bills that would change how the country regulates prescription drugs and medical devices. Regardless of whether that legislation advances, Trump’s presidency is likely to enable the industry to get much of what it wants in terms of deregulation. “At the very least, President-elect Trump will support ‘Right-to-try’ laws that attempt to provide access to unapproved drugs,” the authors wrote.

One former FDA official, who spoke anonymously, said that the support for the right to try movement signals a broader disapproval of regulation. “The people who believe in that don’t believe there should be an FDA,” the former official said. Jacobson, of the Center for Science in the Public Interest, said that Congress could easily cut the FDA’s budget thereby “crippling programs to prevent foodborne infections, prevent dishonest food labels, and keep unsafe additives out of the food supply.” Others said even if he intends to overhaul the FDA, Trump may be surprised to find that there are limits to what he can do. “You can be against regulation all you want but the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act is not something that is malleable within executive orders,” said Dr. Sidney Wolfe, founder and senior adviser to Public Citizen’s Health Research Group, which has long battled the agency for better patient protection. “There are laws, many laws, and it took a long time to get them.” (Sheila Kaplan, STAT)

Have an interesting science policy link?  Share it in the comments!

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Written by sciencepolicyforall

November 25, 2016 at 9:00 am

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