Science Policy For All

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Science Policy Around the Web – May 12, 2017

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By: Liu-Ya Tang, PhD

Source: pixabay

Biosafety

Basic Scholarship in Biosafety Is Critically Needed

While a significant amount of money funds primary research in life sciences, the portion allotted in biosafety assessment is almost neglected, which can be detrimental to biomedical research. In a recent paper in mSphere, an open-access journal published by the American Society for Microbiology (ASM), the authors reported the status of practicing biosafety in U.S. labs and pointed out the urgent need for funding in this field.

They identified human errors as the dominant component of laboratory biosafety risk, but there was limited data to support a quantitative analysis of human failure rates. Publicly available risk assessments were only focused on mechanical failure rates. They also found that historical biosafety incident data is not adequate, and incidents reporting systems are not sufficiently standardized. So the same mistakes could likely happen in multiple labs. In contrast, other industries, such as the power and transportation industries, have been investing heavily in maintaining safety records and have benefited from doing so. The authors cite an example from the airline industry to address the importance of incident reporting system. After a flight crash outside Washington’s Dulles airport in 1974, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) created a no-fault system of reporting aviation incidents and mistakes. FAA has maintained this system ever since, which has helped reduce accident rates by two-thirds compared to that in the early 1970s.

Even though funding for biosafety assessment is much less than that in other industries, the consequences of a potential infectious disease outbreak can be much bigger than any other accidents. Therefore, such funding is urgently needed for three aspects: “(i) development of a national incident reporting system, (ii) primary research programs focused on human reliability assessments, equipment failures, and decontamination efficiencies, and (iii) sharing of best practices.” Investing in biosafety and biorisk management will help enhance laboratory safety practices and improve work performance of our research enterprise in the long run. (Ryan Ritterson and Rocco Casagrande, mSphere)

Human Stem-Cell Research

Attitudes Towards Stem-Cell Research in Europe, Canada and the United States

Human embryonic stem-cell research has caused many political and public debates over moral concerns while providing benefits to human health. In science policy making, public opinion has great impact. To investigate factors that affect international public opinion towards stem-cell research, Allum N. and colleagues analyzed representative sample surveys in Europe and North America, fielded in 2005, when it was a highly contested issue.

The authors found that public attitudes towards stem-cell research has been affected by government decisions, especially in the U.S. During the Bush administration, federal funding only allowed the use of a small number of existing cell lines in stem-cell research. These limitations were removed by an Executive Order from President Barack Obama that expanded NIH support for human stem-cell research. In response to government guidance, public support for stem-cell research in the U.S. rose from 40 percent in 2002 to around 65 percent in 2010. About 65 percent of Europeans and Canadians supported human stem-cell research on the condition that it is tightly regulated. The other influential factor is religion. The authors showed that in all the regions examined, approval for stem-cell research decreased with increasing religious commitment. This pattern was more pronounced in the U.S. and Canada than in Europe. But interestingly, half of even the most religious public supported stem-cell research, which indicated that perhaps the benefits of stem-cell research are being more appreciated. Overall, the majority of people in the surveyed areas hold positive attitudes towards human stem-cell research. (Nick Allum et al, PLOS ONE)

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Written by sciencepolicyforall

May 12, 2017 at 11:07 am

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