Science Policy For All

Because science policy affects everyone.

Science Policy Around the Web – August 1, 2017

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By: Sarah L. Hawes, PhD

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Climate Science

Conducting Science by Debate?

Earlier this year an editorial by past Department of Energy Under Secretary, Steven Koonin, suggested a “red team-blue team” debate between climate skeptics and climate scientists. Koonin argued that a sort of tribalism segregates climate scientists while a broken peer-review process favors the mainstream tribe. Science history and climate science experts published a response in the Washington Post reminding readers that “All scientists are inveterate tire kickers and testers of conventional wisdom;” and while “the highest kudos go to those who overturn accepted understanding, and replace it with something that better fits available data,” the overwhelming consensus among climate scientists is that human activities are a major contributor to planetary warming.

Currently, both Environmental Protection Agency Administrator, Scott Pruitt, and Department of Energy Secretary, Rick Perry, cite Koonin’s editorial while pushing for debates on climate change. Perry said “What the American people deserve, I think, is a true, legitimate, peer-reviewed, objective, transparent discussion about CO2.” That sounds good doesn’t it? However, we already have this: It’s called climate science.

Climate scientists have been forthright with politicians for years. Scientific consensus on the hazards of carbon emissions lead to the EPA’s endangerment findings in 2009, and was upheld by EPA review again in 2015. A letter to Congress in 2016 expressed the consensus of over 30 major scientific societies that climate change poses real threats, and human activities are the primary driver, “based on multiple independent lines of evidence and the vast body of peer-reviewed science.”

Kelly Levin of the World Resources Institute criticizes the red team-blue team approach for “giving too much weight to a skeptical minority” since 97% of actively publishing climate scientists agree human activities are contributing significantly to recent climactic warming. “Re-inventing the wheel” by continuing the debate needlessly delays crucial remediation. Scientific conclusions and their applications are often politicized, but that does not mean the political processes of holding debates, representing various constituencies, and voting are appropriate methods for arriving at scientific conclusions.

(Julia Marsh, Ecological Society of America Policy News)

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source: pixabay

Data Sharing, Open Access

Open Access Science – getting FAIR, FASTR

Advances in science, technology and medicine are often published in scientific journals with costly subscription rates, despite originating from publicly funded research. Yet public funding justifies public access. Shared data catalyzes scientific progress. Director of the Harvard Office for Scholarly Communication and of the Harvard Open Access Project, Peter Suber, has been promoting open access since at least 2001. Currently, countries like The Netherlands and Finland are hotly pursuing open access science, and the U.S. is gearing up to do the same.

On July 26th, bipartisan congressional representatives introduced The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), intended to enhance utility and transparency of publicly funded research by making it open-access. Within the FASTR Act, Congress finds that “Federal Government funds basic and applied research with the expectation that new ideas and discoveries that result from the research, if shared and effectively disseminated, will advance science and improve the lives and welfare of people of the United States and around the world,” and that “the United States has a substantial interest in maximizing the impact and utility of the research it funds by enabling a wide range of reuses of the peer-reviewed literature…”; the FASTR Act mandates that findings are publicly released within 6 months. A similar memorandum was released under the Obama administration in 2013.

On July 20th, a new committee with the National Academies finished their first meeting in Washington D.C. by initiating an 18-month study on how best to move toward a default culture of “open science.” The committee is chaired by Alexa McCray of the Center for Biomedical Informatics at Harvard Medical School, and most members are research professors. They define open science as free public access to published research articles, raw data, computer code, algorithms, etc. generated through publicly-funded research, “so that the products of this research are findable, accessible, interoperable, and reusable (FAIR), with limited exceptions for privacy, proprietary business claims, and national security.” Committee goals include identifying existing barriers to open science such as discipline-specific cultural norms, professional incentive systems, and infrastructure for data management. The committee will then come up with recommended solutions to facilitate open science.

Getting diverse actors – for instance funders, publishers, scientific societies and research institutions – to adjust current practices to achieve a common goal will certainly require new federal science policy. Because the National Academies committee is composed of active scientists, their final report should serve as an insightful template for federal science agencies to use in drafting new policy in this area. (Alexis Wolfe & Lisa McDonald, American Institute of Physics Science Policy News)

Have an interesting science policy link?  Share it in the comments!

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Written by sciencepolicyforall

August 1, 2017 at 7:38 pm

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