Science Policy For All

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Science Policy Around the Web – September 26, 2017

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By: Rachel F Smallwood, PhD

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source: pixabay

Public health

Air Pollution Tied to Kidney Disease

A new study has reported a link between kidney disease and air pollution. Using data collected from over 2.4 million veterans, researchers were able to examine this relationship by consulting NASA and EPA pollution data. They found that glomerular filtration rate, a measure of kidney function that quantifies how much blood is passing through the kidneys to be filtered, decreased as levels of fine particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM 2.5) increased. These particles are small enough to enter the bloodstream where they then enter the kidneys. The authors estimate that 44,793 cases of chronic kidney disease and 2,438 cases of end-stage renal disease can be attributed to PM 2.5 levels that exceed EPA standards.

Kidney disease is just the latest disease that can be partially attributed to air pollution. Pulmonary conditions, cardiovascular disease, and stroke have been established as being contributed to and exacerbated by air pollution. Earlier this year, it was reported that air pollution also increased the risk of Alzheimer’s and dementia. With so many researchers reporting on such a wide variety of adverse health effects due to air pollution, it is becoming more imperative to address these issues and not lose ground in the struggle for cleaner air. Citizens and policymakers need to be educated about the importance and vigilant about the risks of air pollution. They need to work together to find ways to reduce pollution levels, not just for the planet for future generations, but for the health of today’s.

(Nicholas Backalar, The New York Times)

Biomedical Research

Scientists grow bullish on pig-to-human transplants

Speaking of kidney disease, the list of people in the United States waiting to receive a kidney transplant has almost 100,000 entries. One solution that scientists and physicians have long considered is xenotransplantation – harvesting donor kidneys and other organs from animals like pigs, which naturally have human-like anatomies. Until now, there have never been any demonstrations that have come close to being acceptable for trials in humans. However, that may be changing. A few research groups are reporting that they are close to moving into human trials and have begun early talks with the FDA.

They have been testing their methods by implanting pig kidneys and hearts into monkeys. The monkeys typically have an extreme immune response, which is what the groups have been attempting to ameliorate. Researchers have not been able to completely eliminate the immune response, but recently they reported that a transplanted kidney lasted over 400 days in a macaque before rejection. A transplanted heart lasted 90 days in a baboon before experimental protocol required that they stop the experiment. A previous experiment demonstrated the ability to keep a pig heart viable when implanted into an immune-suppressed baboon’s stomach for over two years, though it was just to test the biocompatibility and the baboon still had its autogenous heart.

This success is partially attributable to CRISPR technology, which has allowed scientists to remove portions of the pig DNA that intensify the immune response. The International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation laid out bare minimum of requirements for moving xenotransplantation into human trials. They require at least 60% survival of life-supporting organs for at least 3 months with at least 10 animals surviving. Scientists also need to provide evidence that survival could be extended out to 6 months. These experimental results and minimum requirements are informative for expectations of xenotransplantation: it is not a permanent solution (at least not any time soon). However, they may provide temporary solutions that give patients more time while they are waiting on transplants from human donors. This is good news; over 7000 people died on an organ transplant waiting list in 2016. For those just trying to get through with dialysis or who just need a few more months before receiving their heart, these xenotransplants could mean the difference between life and death.

(Kelly Servick, Science)

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Written by sciencepolicyforall

September 26, 2017 at 4:58 pm

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