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Science Policy Around the Web – May 22, 2018

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By: Patrice J. Persad, PhD

Species Conservation

Massive Eradication Effort Ends Rodents’ Reign Of Terror On Forbidding Isle

In an era when biotechnologies, such as gene drives and in-vitro fertilization, pulsate as pending alternate strategies for species conservation, two seemingly outdated tactics emerge victoriously: man power and canine power. Because of collaborations, for almost ten years, between the South Georgia Heritage Trust (SGHT) and Friends of South Georgia Island, the South Georgia pipit, a native avian species, regained habitat from plaguing invaders—rodents, predators of both chicks and adult birds. After scaling approximately 1,500 miles (area of 400 square meters) of the South Atlantic island’s icy, merciless terrain, “a blessing incognito,” conservation project human members and three dogs, expert ”rodent sniffers,” confirmed the region to be absent of rats and mice. This is giving the South Georgia pipit something to merrily sing about.

How exactly did the 200-year dynasty of the rodent collapse on South Georgia Island? With helicopters furnished by the Friends of South Georgia Island, an American-headquartered organization, pilots circulated poison targeted to the invasive species. Geographical barriers also trapped the whiskery mammals; Goliath-sized glaciers stalled rodents from scurrying to and populating other places on the island. Project members two years later then positioned low-tech chewy apparatuses smothered with tantalizing bait—sticky substances like vegetable oil and sweet peanut butter. These served as checks to record any remaining rodents; any captured teeth impressions signaled rodent infestation. The trinity of dogs, Will, Ahu, and Wai, roamed with their handlers and sniffed amongst the other native wildlife—elephant seals, penguins, and fur seals—while on their quest to determine the deadly invaders’ survival. Fortunately, the rats were history, and this event marked the conservation efforts as successes.

Where one chapter ends, another starts. This characterizes the neverending book of conservation. To permanently keep rodents off the island, the SGHT prudently enforces safeguards. Travellers to South Georgia face examination of their persons and belongings. International governmental officials transfer these individuals to land on miniature vessels from major sea vessels. This is to permit ease of keeping eyes (and canine noses) on any vagabond rats and mice since the vessel area to hide decreases.

As human beings (and dogs) work to restore South Georgia pipits’—and other seabirds’—home into their wings, hope awashes and renews the wildlife conservation front. Given that the triumphant primary actors, the SGHT and Friends of the South Georgia Island, are non-profit organizations, this shows that federal agencies or other government institutes may not be the only ones to fly to species’ rescue. With funding, proper planning, perseverance, and global cooperation [in this case, various networks spanning the United Kingdom (primarily Scotland, the SGHT’s location), the United States, New Zealand, and South Georgia], the inconceivable transforms to the imminent. As Professor Mike Richardson of SGHT envisions, the win over the rodents in South Georgia will inspire others—yes, even “mere” citizens—to take a stand in protecting both native species and their habitats across the hemisphere.

(Colin Dwyer, National Public Radio)

Environment

Air pollution inequality widens between rich and poor nations

Injustice again accompanies the impoverished throughout the world. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), poor air quality (more air pollutants) equals poor health, with the highest percentage (45%) of pollution-linked deaths (total worldwide: 7 million) corresponding to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 25% of these deaths corresponded to stroke, the second global leading cause of death. An interactive map of related air pollution annual mean measurements [micrograms of particulate matter (less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter) per cubic meter—PM2.5] highlights Southeast Asian, African, and Middle Eastern lower-income regions with the greatest numbers (PM2.5 > 70 micrograms per cubic meter). Individual cities with monstrous PM10 peaks (micrograms of particulate matter less than 10 micrometers in diameter per cubic meter) include Delhi (292), Cairo (284), Dhaka (104), and Mumbai (104). North America, specifically the United States and Canada, on the other hand, overall inhaled better air quality (PM2.5 < 10 micrograms per cubic meter).

When comparing rich areas to poor areas, what accounts for the disparate distributions of air pollution? In economically struggling communities, dwellers can only purchase cheap means of creating fire or generating heat for cooking and other everyday uses: coal, wood, or kerosene. Governmental policy setting standards and restrictions on PM10 and PM2.5 levels impacts air quality, too, such as the United States’ long-standing Clean Air Act and China’s recent air pollution regulations. However, despite high-income countries’ regulations and air quality management, these dominions, too, are not immune to miasma; well-to-do cities, such as Manchester and London, fail to fall under the WHO recommended PM2.5 threshold (10 micrograms per cubic meter). Thus, existing acts must be evaluated for shortcomings and amended, if not rewritten, for improvements. Jenny Bates, a Friends of the Earth member, suggests championing more research. Studies on air pollution levels during periods/intervals and effects of certain practices on these levels pave the trail for effective policy measures. Research will also uncover pollutant levels in countries—mainly those in Africa—currently missing these data.

(Jonathan Watts, The Guardian)

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Written by sciencepolicyforall

May 22, 2018 at 8:02 pm

Posted in Uncategorized

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