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Science Policy Around the Web – April 20, 2018

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By: Jennifer Patterson-West, Ph.D.


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source: USEPA via flickr

Food waste

Grocery Stores Get Mostly Mediocre Scores On Their Food Waste Efforts

Food waste is often thought of as unavoidable. Everyone creates food waste. However, steps can be taken to minimize or eliminate waste.

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has issued simple guidelines to reduce food waste. These ‘guidelines’ have been outlined into a hierarchical ranking based on their effectiveness at preventing food waste. The most effective tier is ‘Source Reduction’, which entails reducing the total volume of food generated. Source reduction reduces pollution and cost associated with the growth, preparation, transport, and disposal of excess food.   Producers can save money by reducing the cost of labor and other resources (such as water and pesticides) associated with unused food.

The second tier is focused at ‘Feeding the Hungry’ by donating extra food. In 2016, it was estimated that ~15.6 million American households faced low or very low food-security at some point. Low food security is defined as households that obtained enough food by participating in food assistance programs, such as community food pantries, whereas very low food security applies to those that experienced a disruption in normal eating patterns due to insufficient money or other resource for food. Taken into account, that over 38 million tons of food was wasted in 2016 alone, the donation of excess food could significantly reduce food-insecurity in America. Food donation programs have already been implemented by the 10 largest U.S. supermarkets. To promote donations by corporations, potential tax deduction for food donation are available to companies and they are protect from liability by the Bill Emerson Good Samaritan Food Donation Act.

The third tier promotes diverting food scraps to ‘Animal Feed’. Converting food scraps to animal feed is often cheaper then transporting it to a landfill. Although this practice has been implemented by farmers for centuries, corporations can also participate by donating extra food to producers of animal feed or zoos. The fourth and fifth tiers are ‘Industrial Uses’ and ‘Composting’, respectively. For industrial purposes, food can be converted into biofuel or other bio-products. Composting, which creates nutrient-rich soil amendments, is a great option for inedible parts of food waste that remains after all other actions are taken.

These guidelines were recently used by the Center of Biological Diversity and The Ugly Fruit and Veg Campaign to score the 10 largest U.S. supermarkets for their handing of food waste. A report of their findings was recently released. They found that the surveyed companies focused on donating and recycling food waste instead of preventing it with none of them achieving an A scoring. A limitation to this survey is incomplete tracking and reporting of the amount of food waste throughout an entire company. Some practices that were specifically noted as reducing food waste include Whole Food’s use of produce that is pulled from shelves to make prepared meals, Walmart’s replacement of eggs within partially damaged packages to reduce waste, and Walmart’s standardization of expiration labels.

(Menaka Wilhelm, NPR)

The opioid crisis

Nursing homes routinely refuse people on addiction treatment – which some experts say is illegal

Opioids account for more than 50% of all drug overdoses, however, total deaths are likely underestimated due to under coding in mortality data The opioid epidemic which was largely isolated to Appalachian communities and minority populations in the 1990s has rapidly spread across the United Stated into more affluent suburban communities. The surge in opioid use correlates with an acceleration in the prescription of legal opioid pain relievers, such as OxyCotin. For this reason, many individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD) became addicted due to long-term use of prescription pain medication. This link between prescription drugs and addiction are likely why evidence-based medication-assisted treatments (MAT) are treated skeptically by the public.

MAT has been shown to reduce symptoms of withdrawal, thereby significantly reducing the risk of relapse and overdose. These drugs, such as methadone or buprenorphine, reduce cravings associate with withdrawal by activating the same receptors in the brain without providing the euphoria associated with other opioid use. Contrary to evidence, many patients are directed away from medications and toward treatment programs that have no scientific or medical evidence supporting their efficacy. In fact, only 1 out of 5 OUD patients receive MAT of any kind.

Two major barriers to MAT, including prescribing restrictions and issues finding extended care facilities. Currently, authorized physicians can use buprenorphine to treat a maximum of 275 patients for opioid dependency. In order to get authorization to prescribe buprenorphine, physicians must apply for a waiver from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. However, the physician must have already been authorized under the Drug Addiction Treatment Act of 2000 to prescribe buprenorphine to up to 30 patient for one year prior to applying. These restrictions are thought to be essential to limit over use of these drugs; however, they increase the administrational burden on physicians and decrease assess to MAT. In an effort to expand access to treatment, the declaration of public health emergency under the Trump administration in 2017 gave doctors the ability to prescribe medications for addiction remotely through telemedicine services.

In addition to limited access to MAT treatment, patients also face the possibility that if they receive MAT they may be refused for admittance into nursing home facilities. For instance, a trade group in Ohio released a written statement that none of its more than 900 member facilities will accept patient receiving either methadone or buprenorphine for addiction. Experts exert that refusal of OUD patients receiving MAT is illegal under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) for nursing facilities. Despite an unknown prevalence of such restrictions, Massachusetts Department of Public Heal release a circular letter in 2016 providing guidance for nursing facilities caring for patient on medications for addiction. Similar efforts can be expanded by other states to educate nursing facilities of their legal obligations and to provide guidance for proper care.

(Allison Bond, STAT news)

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Written by sciencepolicyforall

April 20, 2018 at 9:29 pm