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Posts Tagged ‘antibiotic resistance

Science Policy Around the Web April 7th, 2020

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By Silvia Preite, PhD

Image by OpenClipart-Vectors from Pixabay 

Discovery of new promising antibiotics through artificial intelligence

Antibiotic resistance is a major global threat to health, food security, and development. Many classes of antibiotics, targeting multiple components crucial for bacterial growth and survival, have been introduced in our modern society. Bacteria can naturally mutate their DNA sequence, changing features of proteins that are the antibiotic targets, therefore escaping the drug activity. Several human actions contribute to accelerated development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria, including over-prescribing of unnecessary antibiotics, poor patient compliance to medications, antibiotic over-use in animal agriculture, and poor infection control in hospitals. Less effective antibiotics weaken our ability to fight infectious diseases such as, pneumonia, tuberculosis, gonorrhea, and salmonellosis, ultimately leading to higher mortality and increased medical costs. Infection with resistant bacteria exceeds 2.8 million cases a year in the U.S. alone, eventually leading to more than 35,000 deaths. 

In a recent study published in Cell, researchers used artificial intelligence to screen more than 107 million compounds to predict antibacterial activity based on their chemical structure. Through their deep neural network model, the authors identified multiple novel molecules, such as halicin, that were effective against a broad spectrum of bacteria. This massive computational effort was complemented by in vivo models of infection. Halicin had exceptional in vivo efficacy in targeting Clostridioides difficile and pan-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections in murine models. Additionally, the authors deep learning approach identified eight other antibacterial compounds structurally different than common antibiotics. 

Without fast and consistent world-wide interventions to reduce antibiotic resistance, the world could go back to the pre-antibiotic era when minor injuries and common infections could again kill. This novel deep learning approach opens exciting possibilities in the discovery of new antibiotics and, more in general, toward next-generation therapeutics.

J Stokes et al., A Deep Learning Approach to Antibiotic Discovery. Cell, 2020

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April 7, 2020 at 9:18 am

Science Policy Around the Web November 26th, 2019

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By: Andrew H. Beaven, PhD

Source: CDC

How Best To Use The Few New Drugs To Treat Antibiotic-Resistant Germs

Bacteria have existed for 3.5–4 billion years, and their survival demonstrates remarkable environmental plasticity. One consequence of their plasticity is that bacteria are able to rapidly become resistant to antibacterial drugs (drugs meant to help humans and animals stave off infection).

Combatting antibiotic drug resistant bacteria (so-called “superbugs”) has been pinpointed as a major, modern global health concern. A new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) report published November 14, 2019 estimates that more than 2.8 million treatment-resistant infections and 35,000 annual deaths occur in the U.S. alone. Notably, the development of new antibiotics has lagged, therefore, scientists are recommending new methods to use old drugs. These include: limiting doses for healthy people and allow the body to do its work; flooding the body with multiple drug types at once; or sequentially changing drug types every 12 to 24 hours.

Given all we know about this global health concern, why is the market not being flooded with new antibiotics? Largely, because it is not lucrative for pharmaceutical companies to chase a moving target. Additionally, antibiotics are only used for short-term ailments (as opposed to those used for chronic illness) and many antibiotics remain unused in an effort to minimize new drug resistance. To help promote new antibiotic research, U.S. Senators Bob Casey (D-PA) and Johnny Isakson (R–GA) introduced the Developing an Innovative Strategy for Antimicrobial Resistant Microorganisms Act of 2019 (DISARM Act of 2019; S.1712) to the Senate on June 4, 2019. The goal of the act is to strengthen American antimicrobial research and improve the development pipeline. While the act was called “essential and timely” by the President of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, it has not passed the Senate at time of publication.

(Richard Harris, NPR)

As SpaceX Launches 60 Starlink Satellites, Scientists See Threat to ‘Astronomy Itself’

On November 11, 2019, the private American aerospace company SpaceX, founded by Elon Musk in 2002, launched its second Starlink satellite payload rocket into outer space. Starlink is a prodigious project that aims to provide “high speed internet access across the globe,” specifically allowing internet access to “locations where access has been unreliable, expensive, or completely unavailable.” The Starlink webpage states that they will provide near-global internet coverage by 2021 through their satellite constellation (a network in which satellites work together to provide continuous coverage).

Even with the relatively few Starlink satellites currently in place, astronomers have already noted significant impact on their work. The primary point of concern is that the satellites are very bright, and astronomers say that even if the satellites are darkened, they will have a profound effect on Earth-based astronomy. Additionally, astronomers worry that Starlink will pollute radio wavelengths used to probe deep space and permanently pollute low-orbit space with “space junk.” SpaceX says they are attempting to minimize the effects Starlink has on the scientific community and that the project is moving ahead. Indeed, Mr. Musk has requested the Federal Communications Commission to allow 30,000 more satellites than 12,000 that were already approved. If successful, SpaceX would have eight times more satellites in low-Earth orbit than currently in orbit.

Other companies, such as, Amazon, Telesat, and OneWeb, are following close behind launching similar satellite constellations. Using outer space for private gain yields an important, unanswered question – who can profit from outer space? Megan Donahue, president of the American Astronomical Society acknowledges that “international space law is pretty wide open,” and that it for now the public must trust corporate good will. Currently, a set of United Nations treaties and principles as well as resolutions have laid out guidelines on the peaceful usage of space, but few exact rules are in place.

(Shannon Hall, The New York Times

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November 26, 2019 at 3:14 pm

Science Policy Around the Web – October 16, 2018

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By: Sarah L. Hawes, Ph.D.

20181016_Linkpost

source: pixabay

Transparency

AAAS CEO Defends Scientific Evidence, Urges EPA to Scrap “Transparency” Rule

On October 3, a Senate subcommittee heard support and opposition to the “Transparency Rule” initiative proposed to guide which scientific evidence could be considered when forming EPA policy. The House version of the rule passed in March 2017, and the context within which the rule would be implemented is discussed in the May 8, 2018 Science Policy for All linkpost EPA Cites “Replication Crisis” in Justifying Open Science Proposal by Saurav Seshadri, PhD.

During recent Senate hearings, the American Association for the Advancement of Science CEO Rush Holt testified that in his view a requirement that research make all data publicly available would eliminate specific types of research, and that this could be used to justify reliance on a subset of science supporting particular policy, and producing politically motivated results “in order to loosen regulations” rather than for the purpose of increasing independent evaluation and reproducibility. He testified that in many cases within EPA purview, such as analyses of the effects of natural disasters or accidental human and environmental toxin exposures, reproducing results is not realistic or relevant. Furthermore, making all collected data public would violate privacy rules where medical records are involved, and studies conducted under conditions of confidentiality would be unusable although data such as individual names are irrelevant to statistical outcomes.

Professor of toxicology, Edward Calabrese from the University of Massachusetts, and Robert Hahn of the Georgetown University Center for Business and Public Policy both testified in favor of the Transparency Rule. Professor Calabrese additionally urged all data initially considered in crafting policy be included in public documentation along with explanations of why any was discarded – potentially requiring a substantial burden during the policy formation process making development of new policies prohibitively difficult. Dr. Hahn urged the Transparency rule be applied across all federal agencies.

(Anne Q. Hoy, AAAS News)

Antibiotic Resistance

New study links common herbicides and antibiotic resistance

Executive Order 13676 established the Presidential Advisory Council on Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria (PACCARB) which developed a five year (2015 – 2020) National Action Plan emphasizing surveillance, identification of resistant bacterial characteristics, resistance prevention, and development of new antibiotics. No reference to agriculture occurs outside of surveillance of antibiotic resistance within livestock, transmission of resistant pathogens to humans, and developing appropriate livestock practices. Despite thoroughly delineating the lines of inquiry expected of various agencies, nowhere does the plan mention agricultural crops or agricultural chemicals. However, a 2015 study found antibiotic resistance developed significantly faster in pathogens exposed to common herbicides in conjunction with antibiotics. According to the paper herbicides are routinely tested for toxicity “but not sublethal effects on microbes,” although it is known sublethal effects contribute substantially to antibiotic resistance.

A new study finds bacterial resistance to antibiotics increasing at rates up to 100,000 times faster in the presence of dicamba (Kamba) and glyphosate (Roundup) – herbicides commonly used worldwide. The earlier paper found the presence of herbicides increased the resistance of bacteria to the antibiotics or increased the effectiveness of the antibiotics against bacteria, depending on the combination of herbicide, bacteria type and antibiotic. The present study finds that even when the herbicide increased the lethality of the antibiotic, the rate at which the bacteria became resistant is also accelerated in the presence of herbicide. Informal peer comments note one of the antibiotics in the study (ciprofloxacin) has also been used recently as an herbicide, underscoring the importance of research into effects between these categories of chemicals.

It is becoming clear, as scientists pursue the goals of the National Action Plan to reduce antibiotic resistance, that the most carefully delineated 2015 plan cannot entirely encompass the scope of influences on antibiotic resistance. Continuing research shows that there is much we do not yet know.

(Margaret Agnew, University of Canterbury News)

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October 17, 2018 at 3:15 pm

Science Policy Around the Web – February 16, 2018

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By: Mohor Sengupta, PhD

Health Bacteria Cell Infection Microbiology Black

source: Max Pixel

Antibiotic discovery

A potentially powerful new antibiotic is discovered in dirt

Antibiotics have been in an ongoing, constant battle with the pathogens they are aimed to eliminate. Bacteria constantly mutate their genetic material to acquire resistance to anti-microbial drugs, making multi-drug resistance a global concern. Misuse or overuse of antibiotics contributes to this phenomenon. To address the issue of multi-drug resistance, a team of microbiologists at the Rockefeller University, NY, have conducted a large screen of natural products produced by soil-dwelling bacteria. According to Dr. Sean Brady, who heads the group, only a small fraction of the bacterial biodiversity is cultured in the lab and only a tiny fraction of chemicals produced by these bacteria are detectable. Identification of naturally produced chemicals by bacteria that have never been cultured in the lab provides a promising new direction towards anti-microbial therapies.

Dr. Brady’s group adopted a “culture-independent”, metagenomics approach to analyze chemicals secreted by unknown bacteria from soil samples. Their aim has not been to identify the bacteria in the samples but to look for DNA signatures associated with calcium dependent antibiotic properties. This means that the chemical they are looking for will act against bacteria only in the presence of calcium. After the identification of a gene potentially encoding a calcium dependent antibiotic, the researchers cloned it and made a laboratory grown bacteria (S. albus J1074) express it. The gene product is a new class of antibiotics that have been named “malacindin”. Dr. Brady’s research has shown that malacidins act by interfering with bacterial cell wall formation and have shown this antibiotic to be effective against a range of superbugs, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Calcium dependent antibiotics are believed to make it more difficult for the target bacteria to evolve resistance. Dr. Brady’s research was published in Nature Microbiology on February 12.

Conventional methods to isolate new antibiotics from laboratory cultured bacteria often lead to the same antibiotics being found over and over again, resulting in abandonment of such approaches in recent times. The novelty of Dr. Brady’s work lies in the use of natural sources, like soil, sewage, water etc. to isolate the genetic blueprint encoding anti-microbial chemicals, made easier with the use of metagenomics and large-scale sequencing. Researchers elsewhere are also using this approach to identify new antibiotics from natural sources. In the modern scenario of increasing deaths due to multi-drug resistance, this type of research is critical to rapid discoveries of novel antimicrobial therapies. Of course, getting the newly discovered drug into the market will not be fast, as Dr. Brady warns, yet this is an ingenious solution to discovering clinically useful antibiotics.

(Sarah Kaplan, The Washington Post)

Risk assessment

He Took a Drug to Prevent AIDS. Then He Couldn’t Get Disability Insurance

Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a practice of taking a drug to prevent HIV infection in persons with high risk of contracting it. In the year 2012, the F.D.A. approved Truvada, a drug originally approved for HIV treatment a decade earlier, for prevention of HIV infection (PrEP). Since then PrEP has become increasingly popular and as of 2017, an estimated 136,000 people in the United States were on PrEP. Several studies have shown that Truvada is highly effective in preventing HIV infection. However in the initial days of Truvada use,  some thought that individuals taking prophylaxis might overestimate its level of protection, leading them to engage in risky behavior they otherwise would have avoided. This belief is prevalent even today, as several insurance companies across the United States regularly deny disability and life insurance to men on PrEP on the basis that this treatment is indicative of an increased level of personal risk.

The repercussions of this policy, was exemplified when Dr. Philip J. Cheng of Brigham and Women’s Hospital at Harvard accidentally cut himself while preparing an HIV positive patient for surgery. The responsible behavior in this situation is to immediately take steps to prevent infection. Dr. Cheng did just that, by enrolling into PrEP. However, when he applied for a disability insurance, he was denied coverage because he was taking Truvada. He could not get the insurance company to cover him even after agreeing to sign a waiver of benefits in case he got infected.

Disability insurance is usually applied for by people whose livelihood depends on their income. For people like Dr. Cheng this insurance will guarantee him his lifetime of income in the case of a disability. Use of Truvada has not shown any adverse side-effects till date. In fact, it is said to be safer than aspirin, whose long term usage causes gastro-intestinal bleeding. It is a consensus among AIDS doctors across the USA that PrEP is necessary for individuals at high risk of contracting HIV. Denial of insurance to PrEP users by insurance companies has been likened to denying insurance for using car seat-belts by Dr. Robert M Grant, whose group led the clinical trial that established the importance of PrEP. Even more perplexing is the fact that life insurance companies are regularly providing insurance to people with other conditions that are managed by regular medications, like diabetes and heart diseases. Even former alcoholics who are now un-addicted are not denied.

Mr. Bennet Klein, a lawyer with Boston based GLAD, an organization of legal advocates and defenders of GLBTQ community has asked several insurance companies the reason for denying insurance to men on PrEP. In most interviews with various insurance companies he and others have heard a range of answers, some ambiguous. The general understanding is that insurance companies are increasingly following this trend because they suspect potential high-risk behavior in PrEP users. The crux here is that regardless of risky sexual behavior, PrEP is highly protective. A prominent work of research published in The New England Journal of Medicine in 2010 showed that tenofovir, one of the chief components of Truvada reduced the risk of HIV infection by 95 percent. The famous HPTN 052 clinical trial of 2011 also showed the efficacy of PrEP.

Because of the prevalence of insurance denials, several people, like Dr. Cheng have stopped using PrEP. It is critical that this trend is reversed, in the light of clear benefits of taking PrEP. While there are insurance companies that do provide disability and life insurance to PrEP users, cases like Dr. Cheng’s result in disappointment and eventual withdrawal from using PrEP.

(Donald G. McNeal Jr, The New York Times)

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February 16, 2018 at 4:58 pm

Science Policy Around the Web – July 7, 2017

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By: Leopold Kong, PhD

Food Policy

Food and Microbiota in the FDA Regulatory Framework

More and more probiotic food products, or microbiota-directed foods, claiming to “improve” the body’s microbiota have been hitting the shelves, with sales valuing over US$700 million in the US alone and US$36.6 billion globally this past year. However, there is little framework regulating their ingredients or guaranteeing the scientific accuracy of their health claims that has resulted in costly legal action. For example, in September 2009, Dannon settled a US$35 million consumer class action suit challenging the claimed health benefits in their ads. A similar class action suit against Procter & Gamble’s Align probiotic has been certified and set for Oct. 16, 2017. A paper recently published in the journal Science calls for greater clarity in policy regulating probiotic products. Importantly, the authors urge that probiotics should be clearly classified as a dietary supplement, a medical food, or a drug. If classified as a dietary supplement, probiotics can make claims on nutrient content and effect on health, but not on treatment, prevention or diagnosis of disease. If classified as a medical food, probiotics must contain ingredients that aid in the management of a disease or condition, with “distinctive nutritional requirements”, that is scientifically recognized. Finally, if classified as a drug, probiotics will require clinical trials to prove its medical claims. An alternative, and perhaps cheaper, way forward is to regulate probiotics as a kind of over-the counter medical food, requiring testing only for their active ingredients that can be used in a variety of products. (Green et al., Science)

Antibiotic Resistance

Untreatable Gonorrhoea on the Rise Worldwide

Over 78 million people are infected with gonorrhea each year, a sexually transmitted disease that has traditionally been treated effectively with anti-microbials. However, recently published data from 77 countries show that antibiotic-resistant gonorrhea is getting more pervasive and harder to cure. “The bacteria that cause gonorrhea are particularly smart. Every time we use a new class of antibiotics to treat the infection, the bacteria evolve to resist them,” said Dr. Teodora Wi, Medical Officer, Human Reproduction, at the WHO. The data found widespread resistance to ciprofaxacin, azithromycin, and even to the last-resort treatments, oral cefixime and injectable ceftriaxone. New drugs are under development, including a phase III trial of a new antibiotic, zoliflodacin, launched by the non-governmental organization Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative and Entasis Therapeutics, a biotech company in Waltham, Massachusetts. Better prevention through education on safer sexual behavior and more affordable diagnostics will also be needed moving forward. (Amy Maxmen, Nature News)

Maternal Health

U.S. has the Worst Rate of Maternal Deaths in the Developed World

A recent six-month long investigation by NPR and ProPublica has found that more women in the US are dying of pregnancy related complications than any other developed country. Surprisingly, this rate is increasing only in the US, which stood at ~ 26.4 deaths per 100,000 births in 2015, translating to nearly 65,000 deaths annually.  This is three times worse than for women in Canada, and six times worse than for women in Scandinavian countries. Reasons include older new mothers with more complex medical histories, unplanned pregnancies, which are the case half the time in the US, greater prevalence of C-sections, and the fragmented health system. This is in contrast with progress in preventing infant mortality, which has reached historic levels in the US. Better medical training for maternal emergency and more federal funding for research in this area may improve the situation for American mothers. (Nina Martin and Renee Montagne, NPR)

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Science Policy Around the Web – April 11, 2017

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By: Liz Spehalski, PhD

Source: pixabay

Antibiotic Resistance

KFC to Stop Using Antibiotics in Chicken

Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) has announced that by 2018, all of its “finger-lickin’ good” chicken will be raised without antibiotics, a decision that is being applauded by health experts. KFC, which has the second largest sales of a U.S. chicken chain after Chick-fil-A is giving its poultry suppliers the deadline to stop using antibiotics in their protein. It will join other large chicken serving fast food chains in fighting the rise of antibiotic resistant bacteria, following in the footsteps of McDonald’s, Chick-fil-A, and Subway. Corporate factory farms in the U.S. often treat their livestock and poultry with antibiotics to prevent disease and promote growth. Currently, livestock ventures utilize about 70% of the nation’s supply of the antibiotics that are given to patients when infections strike.

Antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents have been used successfully since the 1940s to treat people with infectious diseases, greatly reducing illness and death caused by microorganisms. However, the incidence of antibiotic- resistant bacteria is rising swiftly. According to the CDC, 2 million people become infected with antibiotic resistant bacteria each year, and at least 23,000 die because of these infections. Although resistance is caused simply by the wide usage of antibiotics across the globe, the fact remains that antibiotics are often incorrectly or over-prescribed.

This is a victory for consumer health groups who lobbied KFC to change its policies. “This announcement is a win for anybody who might someday depend on antibiotics to get well or even save their lives — i.e. everybody,” said Matthew Wellington, Program Director for one group’s antibiotics program. “It’s also a welcome step by KFC. The company’s newfound commitment on antibiotics should have lasting effects on the way these life-saving medicines are used in the chicken industry.” These advocates are currently lobbying state legislatures to pass laws that ban the routine use of antibiotics in livestock. (Lisa Baertlein, Business Insider)

Evolutionary Biology

Discovery of Giant Virus Fuels Debate over Fourth Domain of Life

Since their identification in the late 1800s as filterable infectious agents, viruses have long been characterized by their incredibly small size and their reliance on host cells for translation. These features have disqualified viruses as being classified as living organisms. However, with the discovery of the giant Mimivirus in 2003, evolutionary biologists are divided. Mimiviruses are larger than many microorganisms and can contain more than 2500 genes, including genes that implied their ancestors could live outside of a host cell. This discovery prompted some scientists to propose that viruses are descendants of a fourth domain of life alongside bacteria, eukaryotes, and archaea, while other researchers see no need for the fourth domain, asserting that viruses simply steal their genome from hosts.

A study published in Science on April 6 fuels this debate with the discovery of a virus in an Austrian sewage treatment plant that contains a genome with the most cell-like phenotype yet discovered. Klosneuvirus genomes contain genes for 20 amino acids as well as enzymes and other machinery used for protein synthesis. Analysis of these genomes suggests that the translation machinery seemed to have been picked up by one virus from a eukaryotic host cell, supporting the theory that viruses stole their genetic material and are thus not qualified as “life.” However, scientists have not been able to identify the host from which the stolen genes were taken, leaving the debate open since much of the Klosneuviruses’ translation genes do not match that of any other known organism. Further evolutionary work will need to be done to determine if viruses are indeed a fourth domain of life. (Sara Reardon, Nature News)

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April 11, 2017 at 9:24 am

Science Policy Around the Web – October 7, 2016

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By: Eric Cheng, PhD

Source: pixabay

Antibiotic Resistance

World health leaders agree on action to combat antimicrobial resistance, warning of nearly 10 million deaths annually if left unchecked

World leaders committed to take action on antimicrobial resistance during their September 21, 2016 high-level meeting on Antimicrobial Resistance in New York. This is the first time Heads of State made a commitment to address the root cause of antimicrobial resistance in human health, animal health, and agriculture. Dr. Margaret Chan, Director-General of the World Health Organization emphasized that “antimicrobial resistance poses a fundamental threat to human health, development, and security. The commitments made today must now be translated into swift, effective, lifesaving actions across the human, animal and environmental health sectors. We are running out of time.”

The committed countries pledged to strengthen regulation of antimicrobials, improve knowledge and awareness, and promote best practices. World leaders also agreed to foster innovative approaches using alternatives to antimicrobials and new technologies for diagnosis and vaccines. The committed countries will base their national action plans on the Global Action Plan on Microbial Resistance, a blueprint developed in 2015 by the World Health Organization along with Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Organization for Animal Health. (United Nations Meetings Coverage and Press Releases)

Zika

Documents reveal intense battle over CDC Zika tests

In addition to battling the spread of Zika infections, the Center for Disease and Prevention (CDC) is currently in an internal battle with determining which test will be best in diagnosing someone with the disease. Robert Lanciotti is the Chief of the Diagnostics and Reference Activity in the Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases in Fort Collins, CO. At the center of the debate is the agency’s prioritization of the Trioplex real-time PCR-based assay that tests for Zika, dengue, and chikungunya over the Singleplex assay which only detects Zika, which Lanciotti’s research found to be 39% more effective than the Trioplex assay.

Lanciotti claimed that the CDC “created a substantial and specific danger to public health” when it did not disclose lower sensitivity of the test it used. Lanciotti was subsequently reassigned to a non-supervisory position in his laboratory who then filed a whistleblower retaliation claim with the US Office of Special Counsel. Lanciotti alleged that the demotion was because of his concerns with the Zika test. Lanciotti has since been reinstated as director of his lab. In addition, the Office of Special Counsel requested that the CDC investigate Lanciotti’s concerns with the sensitivity of the Trioplex test.

The CDC’s own investigation found that Dr. Lanciotti’s allegations “are not substantiated by the available evidence.” The CDC ruled that “[t]here is insufficient, statistically robust, definitive data to reach an evidence-based conclusion that use of the Trioplex assay over the Singleplex in clinical practice will result in 39 percent of Zika virus infections being missed.” The CDC also noted that it is continuing to improve on the Trioplex assay such as enabling testing laboratories to use larger sample volumes in order to increase the assay’s limit of detection. The Trioplex assay is still approved for use as a method of detecting Zika virus, dengue, and chikungunya. (Jon Cohen, Science Magazine)

Research Funding

HHMI Launches New Program for Early-Career Scientists

The Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) recently launched a new program to recruit and retain early-career scientists that are underrepresented in the life sciences. These individuals include those coming from a disadvantaged background. The selected HHMI scientists will become Hanna H. Gray fellows, named after Hanna H. Gray, former chair of the HHMI Trustees and former president of the University of Chicago.

The purpose of the Gray Fellows Program is to find and encourage talented students and early scientists that are committed to continuing their scientific training in the nation’s top laboratories. The Hanna H. Gray Fellows grant competition is open to all eligible applicants and no nomination is required.  Selected fellows are required to devote at least 75 percent of their total effort to research during both the postdoctoral training and faculty phases of the award. In addition, part of the goal for the program is to position Gray fellows to be competitive for NIH grants and other awards when they transition to the faculty phase of their careers. (Howard Hughes Medical Institute)

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Written by sciencepolicyforall

October 7, 2016 at 11:12 am