Science Policy For All

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Posts Tagged ‘climate change

Science Policy Around the Web – February 23, 2018

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By: Janani Prabhakar, Ph.D.

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Climate Change

Permafrost experiments mimic Alaska’s climate-changed future

In Denali National Park and Preserve, you will find ecologist Ted Schuur near Eight Mile Lake on an endeavor to answer some of the toughest questions in climate change research. His “laboratory” is situated in the middle of a tundra, filled with many instruments to measure changes in carbon dioxide. A gas-sensing tower can detect carbon dioxide levels a quarter mile away. Polycarbonate chambers at the top of this tower traps CO2 as it drifts through the air and measure its amount. Using a clever manipulation, he seeks to determine how rising temperatures will impact this region’s CO2 emissions.

The key to understanding the impact of rising temperature is to understand the dynamics between carbon dioxide, plants and soil. Microbes in the soil release CO2. Plants absorb more CO2 than they release, keeping it out of the atmosphere. Critically, microbes release CO2 all year while plants absorb CO2 only during growing season. For a perfect balance, there should be enough microbes in the soil that release CO2 throughout the year and enough plants in the environment to absorb it during growing season. How do rising temperatures impact this balance? Schuur measured CO2 from two different plots of land: one that was surrounded by snow fences and the other that was unfenced. Snow fences catch the cold drift and as a result, the ground they surround is 3 to 4 degrees Fahrenheit warmer than the unfenced plot. This amount of warming is significant because Alaska is projected to see an additional 4 to 5 degrees of warming by 2100. So, Schuur has created an environment within the fenced plot that mimics the projected environment of 2100.

Schuur finds that due to the warmer temperatures, slumping permafrost causes the land to lower by several feet. This, in turn, causes the depth to which the soil thaws in the summer to be deeper, allowing the permafrost layer to add more organic matter to the soil. The result is that more organic matter produces more plant growth, which means more CO2 is absorbed in these warmed fenced plots than the cooler unfenced plots. But, this only happens during the growing season. Since the deeper soil also sees more microbial growth, more CO2 is released from the soil all year around in the fenced than unfenced plot. Schuur finds that the amount of CO2 released in these warmer plots is not offset by what is absorbed by the plants in the growing season, despite the extra plant growth.

Altogether, this news is not good. Given the current rate of temperature rise, this imbalance between CO2 absorption and release may only grow. By the end of the century, the amount of carbon transferred from the thawing permafrost to the atmosphere could reach 1 billion tons, as much as present-day emissions of Germany and Japan.

(J. Madeleine Nash, Wired)

Healthcare

Synergy Between Nurses And Automation Could Be Key To Finding Sepsis Early

Sepsis is the body’s reaction to overwhelming infection and causes about a quarter of a million deaths in American each year. If caught early, it can be treated. But, healthcare workers struggle to identify sepsis in patients in a timely manner. Blood tests cannot specifically test for it, and there is nothing to search for under a microscope. Dr. David Carlbom, a pulmonologist at Harborview Medical Center in Seattle, devised a system to help healthcare providers identify sepsis symptoms and provide timely treatment. His system uses day to day electronic health records to detect subtle clues and send warning flags for impending sepsis. It helps to capture patterns in symptoms, including high or low temperatures, low blood pressure, fast breathing, and high white blood cell count. The system is implemented at nursing stations in the hospital. After a patient is admitted, a red box appears in the patient record, prompting the nurse to answer questions about symptoms and determine whether they point to early signs of sepsis. If the nurse determines that they do, a provider is paged and responds within a half hour. Altogether, the system is intended to ensure the patient is seen within three hours.

While this is a much more precise and efficient method than prior practice, there are circumstances that lead to false alarms. For example, faster breathing may be due to multiple factors, including simply walking down the hall. Or, symptoms such as high white blood cell count may not be due to sepsis, particularly in patients being seen for other health issues like cancer. One way to reduce false alarms is built into the system: the red box appears only every 12 hours. This ensures that providers are not paged throughout the day for false alarms. Furthermore, if nurses determine that the patient is not experiencing sepsis, they must report why and provide an explanation for the symptoms the patient is experiencing. This allows for thoroughness, accountability, and precision. It also ensures that nurses keep a close eye on their patients. The effectiveness of this system has been seen in the reduction of mortality rates since it was installed in 2011.

Despite the reduction in mortality rates, entering vital signs manually could have its shortcomings. Sepsis symptoms can arise quickly and affect the body rapidly. Nurses may miss these symptoms within the 12-hour window if they are not vigilant. Recent efforts have begun to address this issue. Dr. Matthew Churpek at the University of Chicago is partnering with a company to create a device that will go under a patient’s mattress to continuously calculate heart rate and respiratory rate. This will reduce false alarms and allow researchers to use an evidence-based approach to clinical practice. They can generate algorithms based on data to predict early onset of sepsis. Critically, this approach will allow clinicians to focus on preventative efforts rather than treatment.

(Richard Harris, NPR)

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February 23, 2018 at 10:43 pm

Science Policy Around the Web – November 17, 2017

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By: Janani Prabhakar, PhD 

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Public Health

The ‘Horrifying’ Consequence of Lead Poisoning

Changes in water treatment practices in Flint, Michigan in 2014 resulted in large levels of lead in the water supply, and eventually culminated to a state of emergency in January 2016. The supply affected over 10,000 residents, forcing these individuals to refrain from using the city’s water supply until 2020. Because state officials may have been aware of lead contamination in the water supply for months before it became public, these officials are now facing criminal charges. This negligence is particularly troubling given recent evidence that shows persisting effects of lead contamination on health outcomes in Flint residents. In a working paper by Daniel Grossman at West Virginia University and David Slusky at the University of Kansas, the authors compared fertility rates in Flint before and after the change in water treatment practices that led to the crisis, and compared post-change fertility rates in Flint to those of unaffected towns in Michigan. They found that the fertility rate declined by 12 percent and fetal death rate increased by 58 percent. These reductions in rate have been witnessed in other cities after similar incidents of lead contamination in the water supply. Furthermore, given that the number of children with lead-poisoned blood supply doubled after changes to the treatment practices, the long-term effects on cognitive, behavior, and social outcomes of this contamination are only beginning to be examined and understood. The circumstances in Flint are an example of how misplaced focus of high-level policy decisions can negatively impact local communities, particularly low-income black neighborhoods. Black neighborhoods are disproportionately affected by lead contamination, but the lack of sufficient attention as well as the false suggestion that effected individuals were to blame propagated by industry leaders and policy makers have deterred progress in addressing critical issues in at-risk and underserved communities.

(Olga Khazan, The Atlantic)

Climate Change

Why China Wants to Lead on Climate, but Clings to Coal (for Now)

In a country of 1.4 billion people, China is one of the world’s largest coal producers and carbon polluters. However, it aims to spearhead the international agreement to address climate change. Despite this contradiction, China is already on track to meet its commitment to the Paris climate accord. This move towards reducing its dependence on coal comes as a necessity to China because of internal pressure to curb air pollution. But, according to NRDC climate and energy policy director Alvin Lin, given its size and population, phasing out coal dependence will not only be a long process for China, but one that has lots of ups and downs. For instance, while China has shown progress in meeting its commitments, a recent report shows higher emission projections this year may reflect an uptick in economic growth and reduction in rains needed to power hydroelectric technologies. While Lin portrays this uptick as an anomaly, competing interests in the Chinese government make the future unclear. In efforts to increase its presence abroad, China has built coal plants in other countries. But, China is also the largest producer of electric cars. President Xi Jinping has derided the United States for being isolationist and reneging on the Paris climate accord, but how his Government plans to hold its end of the deal has not been revealed. An important revelation is the fact that even if every country achieves their individual Paris pledges, the planet will still heat up by 3 degrees Celsius or more. Given that this increase is large enough to have catastrophic effects on the climate, adherence to Paris pledges serves only as a baseline for what is necessary and sufficient to combat global warming.

(Somini Sengupta, The New York Times)

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November 17, 2017 at 4:51 pm

Science Policy Around the Web – August 18, 2017

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By: Nivedita Sengupta, PhD

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Climate Science

Effort backed by California’s flagship universities comes as US President Donald Trump shrugs off global warming

As US President Donald Trump announces to withdraw from Paris Agreement, renouncing climate science and policy, scientists in California are deciding to develop a home-grown climate research institute -‘California Climate Science and Solutions Institute’. California has always tried to protect the environment with different initiatives and this one is already getting endorsed by California’s flagship universities and being warmly received by Governor Jerry Brown. The initiative is still in the early stages of development and will also need clearance from the state legislature. The institute will aim to fund basic as well as applied research in all the topics related to climate change ranging from ocean acidification to tax policy. Priority will be given to projects and experiments that engage communities, businesses and policymakers. “The goal is to develop the research we need, and then put climate solutions into practice,” says Daniel Kammen, an energy researcher at the University of California, Berkeley. He also states that this work will have global impact. The climate research project being undertaken in California may have an ally too, as the science dean of Columbia University of New York city, Peter De Menocal, plans to build an alliance of major universities and philanthropists to support research for answering pressing questions about the impacts of climate change. De Menocal already tested the idea on a smaller scale by launching the Center for Climate and Life at Columbia University last year, which raised US$8 million of private funding. This is no the first time California has taken the initiative to support an area of science that fell out of favor in Washington DC. In 2004, President George W. Bush restricted federal support for research on human embryonic stem cells. This led to the approval of $3 billion by the state’s voters to create the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine in Oakland. Since then, the center has funded more than 750 projects. The proposal for a new climate institute also started along a similar path, as a reaction to White House policies, but its organizers say that the concept has evolved into a reflective exercise about academics’ responsibility to help create a better future. The panel members wish to put forward a complete plan to set up the institute to the California legislature this year, in the hope of persuading lawmakers to fund the effort by September 2018, before Governor Brown’s global climate summit in San Francisco.

(Jeff Tollefson, Nature News)

Retractions

Researchers pull study after several failed attempts by others to replicate findings describing a would-be alternative to CRISPR

The high-profile gene-editing paper on NgAgo was retracted by its authors on 2nd August, citing inability in replicating the main finding by different scientists around the globe. The paper was published in Nature Biotechnology in May 2016. It described an enzyme named NgAgo which could be used to knock out or replace genes in human cells by making incisions at precise regions on the DNA. The study also emphasized the findings as a better alternative to the CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing system which revolutionized gene editing and has even been used to fix genes for a heritable heart condition in human embryos. Han Chunyu, molecular biologist at Hebei University of Science and Technology in Shijiazhuang is the inventor and immediately attracted a lot of applause for his findings. However, within months, news started emerging in social media about failures to replicate the results. These doubts were confirmed after a series of papers were published stating that the NgAgo could not edit genomes as stated in the Nature paper. Earlier, Han told Nature’s news team that he and his team had identified a contaminant that can explain other groups’ struggles to replicate the results and assured that the revised results would be published within 2 months. Yet on August 2, they retracted the paper stating that “We continue to investigate the reasons for this lack of reproducibility with the aim of providing an optimized protocol.”

The retraction of the paper, however, puts in question the future of the gene-editing center that Hebei University plans to build with 224 million yuan (US$32 million) as Han as the leader. Moreover, Novozymes, a Danish enzyme manufacturer, paid the university an undisclosed sum as part of a collaboration agreement. Dongyi Chen, Novozymes’ Beijing-based press manager, told Nature’s news team in January that the technology is being tested and shows some potential, but it is at a very early stage of development and hence it is difficult to determine its relevance. Following the news of retraction, he stated that the company has explored the efficiency of NgAgo, but so far has failed to track any obvious improvement. Yet they are not giving up hope as scientific researches takes time.

(David Cyranoski, Nature News)

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August 18, 2017 at 5:11 pm

Science Policy Around the Web – August 1, 2017

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By: Sarah L. Hawes, PhD

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Climate Science

Conducting Science by Debate?

Earlier this year an editorial by past Department of Energy Under Secretary, Steven Koonin, suggested a “red team-blue team” debate between climate skeptics and climate scientists. Koonin argued that a sort of tribalism segregates climate scientists while a broken peer-review process favors the mainstream tribe. Science history and climate science experts published a response in the Washington Post reminding readers that “All scientists are inveterate tire kickers and testers of conventional wisdom;” and while “the highest kudos go to those who overturn accepted understanding, and replace it with something that better fits available data,” the overwhelming consensus among climate scientists is that human activities are a major contributor to planetary warming.

Currently, both Environmental Protection Agency Administrator, Scott Pruitt, and Department of Energy Secretary, Rick Perry, cite Koonin’s editorial while pushing for debates on climate change. Perry said “What the American people deserve, I think, is a true, legitimate, peer-reviewed, objective, transparent discussion about CO2.” That sounds good doesn’t it? However, we already have this: It’s called climate science.

Climate scientists have been forthright with politicians for years. Scientific consensus on the hazards of carbon emissions lead to the EPA’s endangerment findings in 2009, and was upheld by EPA review again in 2015. A letter to Congress in 2016 expressed the consensus of over 30 major scientific societies that climate change poses real threats, and human activities are the primary driver, “based on multiple independent lines of evidence and the vast body of peer-reviewed science.”

Kelly Levin of the World Resources Institute criticizes the red team-blue team approach for “giving too much weight to a skeptical minority” since 97% of actively publishing climate scientists agree human activities are contributing significantly to recent climactic warming. “Re-inventing the wheel” by continuing the debate needlessly delays crucial remediation. Scientific conclusions and their applications are often politicized, but that does not mean the political processes of holding debates, representing various constituencies, and voting are appropriate methods for arriving at scientific conclusions.

(Julia Marsh, Ecological Society of America Policy News)

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Data Sharing, Open Access

Open Access Science – getting FAIR, FASTR

Advances in science, technology and medicine are often published in scientific journals with costly subscription rates, despite originating from publicly funded research. Yet public funding justifies public access. Shared data catalyzes scientific progress. Director of the Harvard Office for Scholarly Communication and of the Harvard Open Access Project, Peter Suber, has been promoting open access since at least 2001. Currently, countries like The Netherlands and Finland are hotly pursuing open access science, and the U.S. is gearing up to do the same.

On July 26th, bipartisan congressional representatives introduced The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), intended to enhance utility and transparency of publicly funded research by making it open-access. Within the FASTR Act, Congress finds that “Federal Government funds basic and applied research with the expectation that new ideas and discoveries that result from the research, if shared and effectively disseminated, will advance science and improve the lives and welfare of people of the United States and around the world,” and that “the United States has a substantial interest in maximizing the impact and utility of the research it funds by enabling a wide range of reuses of the peer-reviewed literature…”; the FASTR Act mandates that findings are publicly released within 6 months. A similar memorandum was released under the Obama administration in 2013.

On July 20th, a new committee with the National Academies finished their first meeting in Washington D.C. by initiating an 18-month study on how best to move toward a default culture of “open science.” The committee is chaired by Alexa McCray of the Center for Biomedical Informatics at Harvard Medical School, and most members are research professors. They define open science as free public access to published research articles, raw data, computer code, algorithms, etc. generated through publicly-funded research, “so that the products of this research are findable, accessible, interoperable, and reusable (FAIR), with limited exceptions for privacy, proprietary business claims, and national security.” Committee goals include identifying existing barriers to open science such as discipline-specific cultural norms, professional incentive systems, and infrastructure for data management. The committee will then come up with recommended solutions to facilitate open science.

Getting diverse actors – for instance funders, publishers, scientific societies and research institutions – to adjust current practices to achieve a common goal will certainly require new federal science policy. Because the National Academies committee is composed of active scientists, their final report should serve as an insightful template for federal science agencies to use in drafting new policy in this area. (Alexis Wolfe & Lisa McDonald, American Institute of Physics Science Policy News)

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August 1, 2017 at 7:38 pm

Science For All – Effective Science Communication and Public Engagement

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By: Agila Somasundaram, PhD

Image: By Scout [CC0], via Wikimedia Commons

         In 1859, Charles Darwin published the Origin of Species, laying the foundation for the theory of evolution through natural selection. Yet more than 150 years after that discovery and despite a large volume of scientific evidence supporting it, only 33% of the American population believes that humans evolved solely through natural processes. 25% of US adults believe that a supreme being guided evolution, and 34% reject evolution completely, saying that humans and all other forms of life have co-existed forever. Similarly, only 50% of American adults believe that global climate change is mostly due to human activity, with 20% saying that there is no evidence for global warming at all. A significant fraction of the public believes that there is large disagreement among scientists on evolution and climate change (the reality being there is overwhelming scientific evidence and consensus), and questions scientists’ motivations. Public skepticism about scientific evidence and scientists extends to other areas such as vaccination and genetically-modified foods.

Public mistrust in the scientific enterprise has tremendous consequences, not only for federal science funding and the advancement of science, but also for the implementation of effective policies to improve public and global health and combat issues such as global warming. In her keynote address at the 2015 annual meeting of the American Society for Cell Biology, Dr. Jane Lubchenko described the Science-Society ParadoxScientists need society, and society needs science. How then can we build public support for science, and improve public trust in scientists and scientific evidence?

Scientists need to be more actively involved in science outreach and public engagement efforts. Communicating science in its entirety, not just as sensational news, requires public understanding of science, and familiarity with the scientific process – its incremental nature, breakthrough discoveries (that don’t necessarily mean a cure), failures, and limitations alike. Who better to explain that to the public than scientists – skilled professionals who are at the center of the action? In a recent poll, more than 80% of Americans agree that scientists need to interact more with the public and policymakers. But two major hurdles need to be overcome.

Firstly, communicating science to the public is not easy. Current scientific training develops researchers to communicate science in written and oral formats largely to peers. As scientists become more specialized in their fields, technical terms and concepts (jargon) that they use frequently may be incomprehensible to non-experts (even to scientists outside their field). The scientific community would benefit tremendously from formal training in public engagement. Such training should be incorporated into early stages of professional development, including undergraduate and graduate schools. Both students and experienced scientists should be encouraged to make use of workshops and science communication opportunities offered by organizations such as AAAS, the Alan Alda Center for Communicating Science, and iBiology, to name a few. Secondly, federal funding agencies and philanthropic organizations should provide resources, and academic institutions should create avenues and incentives, for scientists to engage with the public. Both students and scientists should be allowed time away from their regular responsibilities to participate in public outreach efforts. Instead of penalizing scientists for popularizing science, scientists’ outreach efforts should be taken into consideration during promotion, grants and tenure decisions, and exceptional communicators rewarded. Trained scientist-communicators will be able to work better with their institutions’ public relations staff and science journalists to disseminate their research findings more accurately to a wider audience, and educate the public about the behind-the-scenes world of science that is rarely ever seen outside. Engaging with the public could also benefit researchers directly by increasing their scientific impact, and influence research directions to better impact society.

While increasing science outreach programs and STEM education may seem like obvious solutions, the science of science communication tells us that it is not so simple. The goals of science communication are diverse – they range from generating or sharing scientific excitement, increasing knowledge in a particular topic, understanding public’s concerns, to actually influencing people’s attitudes towards broader science policy issues. Diverse communication goals target a diverse audience, and require an assortment of communicators and communication strategies. Research has shown that simply increasing the public’s scientific knowledge does not help accomplish these various communication goals. This is because people don’t solely rely on scientific information to make decisions; they are influenced by their personal needs, experiences, values, and cultural identity, including their political, ideological or religious affiliations. People also tend to adopt shortcuts when trying to comprehend complex scientific information, and believe more in what aligns with their pre-existing notions or with the beliefs of their social groups, and what they hear repeatedly from influential figures, even if incorrect. Effective science communication requires identifying, understanding and overcoming these and other challenges.

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened two meetings of scientists and science communicators, one in 2012 to gauge the state of the art of research on science communication, and another in 2013 to identify gaps in our understanding of science communication. The resulting research agenda outlines important questions requiring further research. For example, what are the best strategies to engage with the public, and how to adapt those methods for multiple groups, without directly challenging their beliefs or values? What are effective ways to communicate science to policymakers? How do we help citizens navigate through misinformation in rapidly changing internet and social media? How to assess the effectiveness of different science communication strategies? And lastly, how do we build the science communication research enterprise? Researchers studying communication in different disciplines, including the social sciences, need to come together and partner with science communicators to translate that research into practice. The third colloquium in this series will be held later this year.

Quoting Dr. Dan Kahan of Yale University, “A central aim of the science of science communication is to protect the value of what is arguably our society’s greatest asset…Modern science.” As evidence-based science communication approaches are being developed further, it is critical that scientists make scientific dialogue a priority, and make use of existing resources to effectively engage with the public – meet people where they are – and bring people a step closer to science – why each person should care – so that ‘post-truth’ doesn’t go from being merely the word of the year to a scary new way of life.

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July 22, 2017 at 11:27 pm

Science Policy Around the Web – July 7, 2017

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By: Liu-Ya Tang, PhD

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Autism

Is There Such a Thing as an Autism Gene?

Autism has become a global burden of disease. In 2015, it was estimated to affect 24.8 million people globally. Significant research efforts are underway to investigate the causes of autism. Autism is highly heritable – there is an 80 percent chance that a child would be autistic if an identical twin has autism. The corresponding rate is about 40 percent for fraternal twins.

However, is there such a thing as a single autism gene? Researchers haven’t found one specific gene that is consistently mutated in every person with autism. Conversely, 65 genes are strongly linked to autism and more than 200 others have weaker ties, many of which are related to important neuronal functions. Mutations in a variety of these genes can collectively lead to autism. The mutations could be from single DNA base pair, or copy number variations, which are deletions or duplications of long stretches of DNA that may involve many genes. Most mutations are inherited, but some mutations could also happen in an egg or sperm, or even after conception.

Besides genetic factors, maternal lifestyle and environmental factors can also contribute to autism. Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy or a maternal immune response in the womb may increase the risk of autism. While there is speculation on the link between vaccines and autism, it is not backed by scientific evidence.

Since both genetic and non-genetic factors play a role in the development of autism, establishing the underlying mechanism is complicated. There is no single specific test that can be used for screening autism. However, some tests are available to detect large chromosomal abnormalities or fragile X syndrome, which is associated with autism. (Nicholette Zeliadt, Washington Post)

STEM Education

New Florida Law Lets any Resident Challenge What’s Taught in Science Classes

A new law was signed by Florida Gov. Rick Scott (R) last week, and has taken effect starting July 1. The law requires school boards to hire an “unbiased hearing officer” to handle complaints about teaching materials that are used in local schools. Any county resident can file a complaint, and the material in question will be removed from the curriculum if the hearing officer thinks that the material is “pornographic,” or “is not suited to student needs and their ability to comprehend the material presented, or is inappropriate for the grade level and age group.”

There are different voices in the new legislation, which affects 2.7 million public school students in Florida. Proponents argue that it gives residents more right in participating in their children’s education. A sponsor, state Rep. Byron Donalds (R-Naples), said that his intent wasn’t to target any particular subject. However, Glenn Branch, deputy director of the National Council for Science Education, is worried that science instruction will be challenged since evolution and climate change have been disputed subjects. A group called Florida Citizens for Science asked people to pay close attention to classroom materials and “be willing to stand up for sound science education.”

Like the new law in Florida, the legislature in Idaho rejected several sections of the state’s new public school science standards related to climate change and requested a resubmission for approval this fall. Since the Trump administration began, there has been “a new wave of bills” targeting science in the classroom. To protect teacher’s “academic freedom,” Alabama and Indiana adopted non-binding resolutions that encourage teachers to discuss the controversy around subjects such as climate change. A supporter of the resolution, state Sen. Jeff Raatz (R-Centerville), told Frontline, “Whether it be evolution or the argument about global warming, we don’t want teachers to be afraid to converse about such things”. (Sarah Kaplan, Washington Post)

 

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July 7, 2017 at 1:32 pm

Science Policy Around the Web – June 20, 2017

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By: Eric Cheng, PhD

Source: Flickr, via Creative Commons (CC BY 2.0)

Research Funding

America is Still First in Science, but China Rose Fast as Funding Stalled in U. S. and Other Countries

American scientific groups continue to publish more biomedical research discoveries than groups from any other country, and the United States still leads the world in research and development expenditures. However, American dominance is slowly diminishing as China’s increase in funding on science over the last twenty years are starting to pay off. Chinese biomedical research now ranks fourth in the world for total number of discoveries published in six top-tier journals. This is with China spending three-fourths of the amount of money that the U.S. spent on research and development in 2015. In addition, new discoveries and advances in science are becoming more of a collaborative effort, which include researchers from around the world.

These findings come from research published in The Journal of Clinical Investigation by a group of University of Michigan researchers. The analysis comes at an important time for Congress to think about whether the annual uncertainty of the National Institutes of Health’s(NIH) budget and proposed cuts are in the nation’s best interest over the long-term. Bishr Omary, the senior author of the article commented, “If we continue on the path we’re on, it will be harder to maintain our lead and, even more importantly, we could be disenchanting the next generation of bright and passionate biomedical scientists who see a limited future in pursuing a scientist or physician-investigator career.”

The research was based on data up to 2015. During the current fiscal year of 2017, funding for NIH was proposed to be increased by 2 billion dollars, which is the second year in a row where funding was increased after 12 years of flat budgets. With this increase in funding, Omary hopes that, “our current and future investment in NIH and other federal research support agencies will rise above any branch of government to help our next generation reach their potential and dreams.” (University of Michigan, ScienceDaily)

Opioid Crisis

The Role of Science in Addressing the Opioid Crisis

Opioid addiction is an ongoing public health crisis. Millions of individuals all over the United States suffer from opioid use disorder with millions more suffering from chronic pain. Due to the urgency and scale of this crisis, innovative scientific solutions need to be developed. As part of a government-wide effort to address this crisis, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) is supplementing current research efforts with a public-private collaborative research initiative on pain and opioid abuse.

The Director of NIH, Dr. Francis Collins met with research and development leaders from biopharmaceutical companies in April 2017 to discuss new ways in which  government and industry can work together to address the opioid crisis. Dr. Collins stated how some advances such as improved formulations, opioids with abuse-deterrent properties, longer-acting overdose-reversal drugs, and repurposing of treatments approved for other conditions may be quick. Other advances such as mu-opioid receptor-based agonists, opioid vaccines, and novel overdose-reversal medications may be slower to develop. Overall, the goal for this partnership is to reduce the time typically required to develop new, safe, and effective therapeutics to half the average time. (Nora D. Volkow and Francis S. Collins, New England Journal of Medicine)

Climate Change

France is Offering US Scientists 4-year Grants to Move to the Country and do Research

Following President Donald Trump’s decision to withdraw the United States from the Paris climate agreement, France created an initiative that will allow researchers, teachers, and students to apply for a fully financed four-year grant to combat climate change. The website for the initiativesays,

“You will be able to stay in France at least for the duration of the grant, and longer if you are granted a permanent position. There is no restriction on your husband / wife working in France. If you have children, note that French public schools are free, and the tuition fees of universities and ‘grandes écoles’ are very low compared to the American system.”

Since Emmanuel Macron won the French presidential election in May, he has addressed American scientists who feel alienated by the Trump administration. Macron has promised strong funding for climate initiatives. However, some U.S. scientists like David Blockstein of the National Council for Science and the Environment see Macron’s invitation as “both a publicity stunt and a real opportunity.” Although it is not very likely that many U.S. researchers will take up the offer, it does provide a “sharp contrast to an increasingly hostile U.S. political environment for science.” (Chris Weller, Business Insider)

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Written by sciencepolicyforall

June 20, 2017 at 1:10 pm