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Science Policy Around the Web September 13th, 2019

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By Neetu M. Gulati PhD

Image by mika mamy from Pixabay 

Genetically modified mosquitoes breed in Brazil

An experiment to curb the population of tropical disease-carrying mosquitoes in Brazil may have failed. In 2013 and 2015, mosquitoes with a modification called OX513A, which prevents these mosquitoes from reaching adulthood and being able to reproduce, were released into a region of Brazil. This experiment was meant to limit the spread of mosquito-borne infectious diseases that plague the area, including zika, dengue, and yellow fever. 

Initially, the goal of the genetic modification experiment was to reduce the mosquito population by 90%, which was successful during the field trial. Only about 4% of genetically modified mosquitoes were expected to be able to reach adulthood, and it was hypothesized that these mosquitoes would be too weak to reproduce. However, about 18 months after the experimental trial period ended, the mosquito population has returned to pre-trial levels. A recent study has revealed that the gene modification has been passed on in 10-60% of the mosquitoes in the area, suggesting they were able to reproduce. Furthermore, modified mosquitoes are as able to carry infectious diseases as non-modified mosquitoes. Critics of the experiment warn that not enough was known about these mosquitoes and there may be unintended consequences to the genetic modification, including a possibility of making the species more robust. The authors of the new study posited “These results demonstrate the importance of having in place a genetic monitoring program during releases of transgenic organisms to detect unanticipated consequences.”

(Fabian Schmidt, Deutsche Welle

America is in danger of losing its “measles-free” status

In 2000 the United States was declared measles-free, 37 years after the introduction of the measles vaccine in the US and Canada. Now, almost two decades later, the US is at risk of losing an official designation of “measles-elimination” status in October. This status is only given to countries without continuous measles transmission for at least one year, where cases of the disease can be linked back to a traveler who brought the virus from another place where it has been circulating. An outbreak of measles in New York state now jeopardizes this. The CDC reported over 1,200 measles cases in the US, with over 75% of the cases occurring in the state of New York. 

This is occurring because it is common in some groups to opt out of the measles vaccine. And it is not just the US; measles cases have increased around the world, and some other countries have also lost measles-free status in the last year.

The outbreak in New York can be traced back to Ukraine, which has had tens of thousands of measles cases in the last year. It then spread throughout a tight-knit community of people who chose not to vaccinate for perceived safety concerns. So while this outbreak can be linked to a traveler, many are concerned that if vaccine coverage rates continue to decline, the virus could spread enough, especially in under-vaccinated communities, that the outbreaks will begin to be “homegrown.”

(Julia Belluz, Vox)

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Written by sciencepolicyforall

September 13, 2019 at 10:53 am

Science Policy Around the Web August 20th, 2019

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By Mohor Sengupta PhD

Image by Ryan McGuire from Pixabay 

FDA makes new push for graphic warning labels on cigarettes

According to government records, the percentage of smokers in the U.S. has reduced from 40% of the population in the 1960’s to 14%. Despite this dramatic decrease, approximately 480,000 people in the U.S. die each year from diseases directly related to smoking. In an attempt to educate smokers about the dangerous medical consequences of smoking, in 2009 the FDA proposed 9 graphic labels to be printed on cigarette packets. However the FDA’s plan didn’t see the light of day when five tobacco companies challenged the FDA’s decision in court and in 2012 won on grounds of free speech. The judges who ruled in favor of the tobacco companies said that “[the images were] crafted to evoke a strong emotional response,” rather than educating consumers. 

The FDA then backed out saying that it will work on introducing new images and it was soon to announce new proposed labels. In 2016, a lawsuit was filed by health groups against the FDA for not proposing a new plan soon enough. Last Thursday, the FDA announced 13 new graphic labels to be displayed on cigarette packets that would show cancerous tumors, diseased lungs, and feet with amputated toes. The FDA’s tobacco director Mitch Zeller said that these new labels had been designed while keeping in mind the limited public awareness of lesser-known diseases caused by smoking. 

For 35 years, everything that the USA’s cigarette packets have told consumers about the harmfulness of smoking has been contained in a warning statement so tiny that it is missed by most consumers. Research has shown that graphic label inclusion on cigarette packets discourages smokers, and Canada was the first country to adopt this measure in 2000. 

Since then, more data have come to light identifying graphic images as an effect anti-smoking measure. A 2013 study showed that participants tended to respond to graphic labels rather than warning statements on cigarette packets. Another 2013 study estimated that if the FDA had adopted graphic labels in 2012, 5.3 to 8.6 million adults would have quit smoking in a year. They based their results on similar data from Canada where graphic labels are in use. 

It is anticipated that Big Tobacco will challenge the FDA’s move once again. Some of them are already citing the First Amendment as their defense. It is now time to see what is decided if the matter is taken to the courts once again. While thousands of people continue to die because of smoking habits in the USA, and graphic label inclusion on cigarette packets are repeatedly challenged by the tobacco industry, nearly 120 countries across the world have already adopted this measure and are reaping its benefits. 

(Matthew Perrone, STAT)

Experimental Ebola Drugs Saved Lives In Congo Outbreak

Ebola is raging in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). However, a climate of distrust around Ebola clinics compounded with political upheavals in DRC has discouraged patients in the early stages of infection from leaving their community and seeking help in designated Ebola clinics. In this way, the virus has rapidly spread across communities and now threatens people outside of DRC as well. 

Despite these issues, efforts are underway to combat Ebola and develop more effective treatment strategies. A NIAID-funded study that compared four drugs against the Ebola virus recently concluded that two of them showed better results in combating the disease. The study, called ‘Pamoja Tulinde Maisha’ (PALM), is a randomized controlled trial of the four drugs and started on November 2018 as part of the emergency response in DRC.

The four investigational agents were Remdesivir, a commonly used antiviral drug, ZMapp, which showed effectiveness in previous Ebola outbreaks, REGN-EB3, developed by Regeneron and mAb114, a monoclonal antibody jointly developed by NIAID and INRB (in the DRC). 

Having reached a definite conclusion about the effectiveness of the four drugs, the PALM trial stopped earlier than originally scheduled. Preliminary results released on August 9, 2019 show only 30% of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) patients treated with REGN-EB3 or mAb114 succumbed to the infection, compared to half of those treated with ZMapp or Remdesivir. When analysis was restricted to the relatively healthier patients receiving the more potent treatments, 6% and 11% died on REGN-EB3 and mAb114 treatment regimes respectively. 

With these preliminary results, patients on Remdesivir and ZMapp will now be switched to one of the more effective drugs based on their physician’s discretion. The study will continue to measure the effects of the two drugs from now on. The final analysis of the study data is likely to be made available later this year. 

(Richard Harris, NPR)

 

Written by sciencepolicyforall

August 20, 2019 at 4:56 pm

Science Policy Around the Web – July 12th, 2019

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By Mohor Sengupta, Ph.D.

Source: Maxpixel

CDC made a synthetic Ebola virus to test treatments. It worked

During the 2014-2016 Ebola outbreak in Guinea, West Africa, infectious samples containing the virus were shared by local government with international scientific communities. Using these materials, Dr. Gary Kobinger and his team developed and tested the efficacy of a monoclonal antibody vaccine at the Canadian National Laboratory. The same vaccine, ZMapp, and other therapies are currently being deployed in the most recent Ebola outbreak, which is the second largest outbreak so far. Beginning in ] 2018 in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), this outbreak is still on the roll. Unfortunately, the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) did not have any viral samples this time, meaning they were unable to test the efficacy of ZMapp and other drugs against the recent viral strain. 

Scientists at the CDC, led by Dr. Laura McMullan, constructed an artificial virus from the sequence of the current strain shared by DRC’s National Biomedical Research Institute (INRB). The group used the sequence data to perform reverse genetics and generate the authentic Ebola virus that’s currently infecting scores of people in Ituri and North Kivu provinces of DRC. 

“It takes a lot of resources and a lot of money and a lot of energy to make a cloned virus by reverse genetics. And it would be so much easier if somebody had just sent the isolate”, Dr. Thomas Geisbert, who is not involved in the work, said. 

The CDC group established the efficacy of current treatments (a drug called Remdesivir and the vaccine ZMapp) on the viral strain by using their artificial virus for all the tests. Their work was published Tuesday in the journal Lancet.

For all four Ebola outbreaks that the DRC has seen, healthcare authorities have not shared viral specimens with foreign Ebola researchers. Instead, the whole genome sequence was provided every time. With the whole genome sequence data, the Lancet paper noted that there are at least two Ebola strains in DRC that have independently crossed into the human population.  

Reasons for not sharing viral samples by DRC are not known but it is a roadblock to rapid and efficient treatments in affected geographical regions. McMullan said that shipping of samples across such large distances is often a logistical issue and requires permission from several authorities and coordination of many people. 

 (Helen Branswell, STAT)

Plastic Has A Big Carbon Footprint — But That Isn’t The Whole Story

We are all too familiar with ghastly images of dead whales with plastic-filled stomachs. These images are compounded by pictures of how much waste is generated, such as a picture of a twenty-story high mound of plastic trash in a developing country that appeared in a recent news article. While there is worldwide concern about how to eliminate use of plastics, there is very little discussion about the environmental impact of the materials that will replace plastic. 

Plastic has a high carbon footprint. In a recent report the Center for International Environmental Law (CIEL) has broken down the individual steps of greenhouse gas production, from the beginning of plastic production until it ends up incinerated as a waste. Manufactured from oil and natural gas, plastic production adds to carbon footprint right from its cradle when gases and oils leak into the environment. Subsequently, delivery of raw materials to the production sites further add to the burden. Being among the most energy intensive materials to produce, plastic production takes a heavy toll on energy, water and electricity. Finally, when plastics are incinerated, greenhouse gases end up in the environment. 

But what about the materials that commonly substitute for plastic, such as paper, compostable plastic, canvas or glass? What is their carbon footprint in production stages? Research by several independent groups has revealed that these materials leave an even larger carbon footprint during their production. Data have shown that polyethylene plastic bags not only used lesser fuel and energy throughout production, they also emitted fewer global-warming gases and left lesser mass of solid wastes, when compared with paper bags and with compostable plastic bags. Being more durable than other materials, use of polyethylene bags are more energy friendly than use of paper bags. 

Research done on behalf of the American Chemistry Council has shown that replacing plastic would eventually do more harm to the environment than their use. Finally, consumer habits count. If people don’t reuse plastics, then its advantages over paper cease to exist. Of course, the problem of permanent waste and global health consequences are issues that cannot be overlooked. The solution might lie in using plastics more wisely and re-using them as much as possible. 

(Christopher Joyce, NPR

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July 12, 2019 at 3:18 pm

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Science Policy Around the Web – June 11th, 2019

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By: Neetu Gulati, Ph.D.

Image by PublicDomainPictures from Pixabay 

People eat at least 50,000 plastic particles a year, study finds

Over 300 million tons of plastic are produced each year, and while it can take over 400 years for plastics to degrade, they can be broken down into smaller and smaller pieces, eventually leading to microplastics. Microplastics can be found all around the world: from the deepest depths of the ocean to the air around us. Now, microplastics have been found in a place much closer to home: our bodies. According to a recent study, the average person in the U.S. eats at least 50,000 particles of microplastic in a year, and also breathe in similar quantities.  And it’s known that humans ingest these particles, as microplastics have been found in human stool samples as well.

These particles are seemingly impossible to avoid; they have been found in many food and drink sources, including both tap and bottled water, beer, and seafood. Not all food and drink items have been tested, however, meaning that there are major gaps in identifying quantities of ingested microplastics. The study assessed less than 20% of caloric intake, meaning it’s possible that the amount of microplastic particles is much higher than 50,000 per year. Speaking of untested foods such as processed products, meat, dairy, and bread, Dr. Kieran Cox, lead author of the study, commented that “it is really highly likely there is going to be large amounts of plastic particles in these. You could be heading into the hundreds of thousands.”

The largest contributor of microplastics came from drinking bottled water, which contains 22 times more plastic than tap water on average. The effects of ingesting microplastics will have on human health are currently unknown. However, the study has encouraged Cox to change his own behavior in response to his findings. I definitely steer away from plastic packaging and try to avoid bottled water as much as possible,” he said.

(Damian Carrington, The Guardian

Canada Plans to Ban Single-Use Plastics, Joining Growing Global Movement

Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau announced a plan to ban single-use plastics as early as 2021, expressing a wish that his children be able to play without their experiences tainted by dead birds and fish killed by pollution. In 2016, less than 10% of plastic was recycled in Canada. Trudeau noted that the nation throws away 8 billion Canadian dollars’ worth of plastic material each year, including 34 million plastic bags daily according to the Environment and Climate Change Canada.

Before the ban goes into effect, the Canadian government will analyze which plastic products should be banned, but Trudeau suggested that Canada will follow the example of the European Union, which voted to ban 10 single-use plastics earlier this year. The banned items are the most commonly found plastics on European beaches, including plates, cotton swabs, and straws. Additionally, at least 32 countries around the world and 3 US states have banned single-use plastic bags, which could also be included in Canada’s ban. 

Trudeau announced that by recycling and reusing plastic, not only would pollution be reduced, but the move could lead to the creation of over 40,000 jobs. The announcement came as Trudeau is readying for a general election at the end of the year, during which climate change and the environment are expected to be important issues.

(Dan Bilefsky, The New York Times

“Pig Ebola” is spreading uncontrollably in China and Vietnam

African swine fever, sometimes referred to as “pig Ebola”, is a highly contagious viral disease that is currently ravaging Asia’s pig industry. The current outbreak of the virus, which kills most animals it infects, started last year in China. China accounts for over half of the world’s pigs, and since the outbreak began in August, over 20% of the country’s pig herd has died, either through succumbing to the disease or to culling, according to Christine McCracken, an animal protein expert at Rabobank. She estimated that by the end of the year, China may lose up to 200 million of its roughly 440 million pig population.

Now, the disease has spread to several countries that neighbor China. From May 24 to June 6 alone, there were 163 new outbreaks, with almost 4,000 ongoing outbreaks worldwide, according to the World Organization for Animal Health. There is no current treatment or vaccine for African swine fever, the only way to prevent spread is to kill all animals that have been infected or potentially exposed, or to use strict biosecurity measures. Like China, Vietnam has also begun to cull its pig population, having killed about 2 million pigs since the outbreak began.

While the virus cannot be transmitted from pigs to humans and is not a food safety issue, it has had strong economic impacts. The Asian economy has suffered greatly, as many in the region rely on raising pigs for their livelihood, and thousands of small producers have been put out of business. A single pig can provide 200 pounds of food, so even small losses add up. While pork prices have not changed significantly due to the disease yet, it is expected that prices may skyrocket by 2020 and may affect the global pork market. 

(Vox Staff, Vox)

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June 11, 2019 at 9:32 am

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The worst humanitarian crisis in the world: war, disease outbreaks and famine in Yemen

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By: Silvia Preite, Ph.D.

Source: Wikimedia

War and natural emergencies in low and middle-income countries often result in the weakening of health systems and relaxation of disease surveillance and prevention, leading to increased risk of infectious disease outbreaks. The over four-year civil war in Yemen continues today and, according to the United Nations (UN), has resulted in the worst on-going humanitarian crisis in the world. Hunger and the spread of communicable diseases affects the vast majority of the Yemeni population.

Overview of the ongoing war in Yemen

Before the start of the conflict in 2015, Yemen was already the poorest country in the Middle East, with debilitated health care systems and poor infrastructures. In March 2015, the Houthi movement took over the government in Sana’a (the capital). In response, a Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates-led coalition (supported by several other nations including the United States, the United Kingdom and France) started a military intervention in Yemen, with the intention of restoring the Yemeni government. Overall, this conflict resulted in devastation of agriculture, services, and industry in Yemen. Moreover, in more than four years of air strikes, over 50% of Yemeni hospitals, clinics, water treatment plants and sewage have been continuously bombed. The situation is further worsened by restrictions on food and medicines and limited access to fuel, leaving many essential facilities non-functional, including water sanitation centers. These conditions have led to extreme famine and spreading of diseases, including massive cholera outbreaks among the population. 

Cholera outbreaks

Cholera is a bacterial disease leading to severe diarrhea and dehydration, usually caused by the consumption of contaminated water or food. World-wide, an estimated 2.9 million cases and 95,000 deaths occur each year. It has been estimated that cholera has affected more than 1 million people in Yemen, with more than 2000 deaths, becoming the worst cholera outbreak in the world. According to Médecins sans Frontières (MSF) (known in English as Doctors Without Border) and Physicians for Human Rights, hospitals, mobile clinics, ambulances, and cholera treatment centers continue to be bombed, despite the fact that they have been marked as medical centers and the GPS coordinates have been communicated to the Saudi coalition. In addition to cholera, as a consequence of dropping immunization rates, more than 3000 cases of measles have been reported. Cholera and measles can be prevented by vaccinations and proper health infrastructure. Global eradication efforts have been adopted over the years to eliminate these infections, making the spreading of these diseases in Yemen a significant setback. 

Humanitarian violations

The Fourth Geneva Convention concerns the protection of civilians during conflicts, and has been ratified by 196 states, including parties involved and supporting the war in Yemen. The air strikes on medical centers violate the principles of medical neutrality established by the convention that protects hospitals and health care workers from being attacked. Within the standards of this international law, there is also the right of free mobility of medical personnel within a conflict zone. In contrast, during the civil war in Yemen restrictions have been applied by all involved parties on the activity of medical staff, delivery of health care equipment, essential medicines and vaccines. 

Latest UN report on the Yemen crisis

According to the UN, an estimated 24.1 million people (80% of the total population) need assistance and protection in Yemen, and of those, 14.3 million are in acute need (need help to survive). More than 3 million people are currently internally displaced (IDP), living in desperate conditions in Yemen or elsewhere in the region. It is estimated that 20.1 million people need food assistance, 19.7 million people need basic health care services, and 17.8 million people lack potable water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). 

Children

An estimated 7.4 million children are in need of humanitarian assistance. Severe children’s rights violations are taking place in Yemen, affecting more than 4000 children and including the risk of being armed and recruited in the war for the boys and child marriage for girls. An estimate of 2 million children are deprived of an education, with around 2,000 schools made unusable by air strikes or occupied by IDPs or armed groups. Upwards of 85.000 children under the age of 5 may have died from severe hunger or other diseases. Overall, according to the UN, at least one child dies every ten minutes in Yemen because of diseases that could be normally prevented, hunger and respiratory infections. 

Urgent need for plans and resolutions

Both famine and disease outbreaks are threatening the Yemeni population and their survival currently relies only on international aid. In February 2019, the United Nations and the Governments of Sweden and Switzerland converged in Geneva to face and discuss the “High-Level Pledging Event for the Humanitarian Crisis in Yemen”. The aim of this meeting was to request international support to alleviate the suffering of the Yemeni people, and they requested $4 billion to provide life-saving assistance. Up to now, 6.3% of the requested budget has been funded; it is encouraging to note that last year UN was able to raise almost 100% of what was initially requested through multiple world-wide donations. 

Along with new funding, the OCHA (UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs), argues that urgent action is needed to prevent any exacerbation of the crisis. The most urgent action to resolve this unprecedented, man-made, medical and humanitarian emergency should come from all the parties involved to end the war and allow the re-establishment of food imports and adequate health services.

As the world barely watches, with only intermittent attention given by the international media, the conflicts and emergency remain. Non-profit and humanitarian organizations (UNICEFMSFWFPSave the Children) have greatly aided the Yemeni population, despite challenging operational environments and the import and circulation restrictions. Moreover, when millions of people, including children, die from hunger and preventable diseases every day, the ethical responsibility of this disaster becomes global and concerns all of us. 

Global implications and future perspectives 

The on-going conflict in Yemen, illustrates how the support of research into innovative global-health solutions is highly needed. When the traditional healthcare system has collapsed and human rights are suspended, we need technologies which further support the victims of war-torn countries to achieve basic sanitary and health standards, beside disease monitoring and vaccination strategies.

We live in an increasingly interconnected world where outbreaks of neglected or re-emerging infectious diseases know no boundaries. Therefore, the consequences of conflicts and disasters in low-middle income countries pose a significant global threat and may affect even stable healthcare systems. Proper evaluation of the causes and consequences of infection outbreaks during the Yemeni conflict is therefore critical for two reasons: devise new strategies to more effectively control and prevent the spread in war-torn areas, and proactively encourage and support countries in regions of conflict to take the necessary measures to minimize the risk of similar humanitarian disasters in the future.

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April 11, 2019 at 4:29 pm

Science Policy Around the Web – February 5, 2019

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By: Neetu Gulati, Ph.D.

Source: Pixabay

Macedonia name change paves way for science cooperation with Greece

Greece and the Republic of Macedonia have been at odds for decades over the name of the latter country. After the dissolution of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s, the nation known colloquially as Macedonia was founded. However, because a region in northern Greece shares a name with the republic, Greece has disputed the country’s name, and tried to bar its entry to international organizations such as NATO and the UN. The Prespa Agreement, ratified by the Republic of Macedonia on January 11, 2019 and Greece on January 25, 2019, is set to relieve tensions by changing the disputed country name to ‘The Republic of North Macedonia,’ and the short name of ‘North Macedonia.’

The Prespa Agreement not only ends the political stand-off between the two nations, but also opens the door for strategic partnerships in many ventures, including science. While some people opposed the Agreement, scientists in both nations welcomed the change, commenting that political tensions and bureaucratic procedures will hopefully no longer hinder collaboration. “Science is done by people, and many people were affected by the mutually negative spirit among the two countries that prevailed in the past years,” commented Ioanna Chouvarda, a Greek scientist.

Many are hopeful that the name change will positively impact scientific and diplomatic ties between the two nations. A spokesperson for the Republic of Macedonia’s science ministry commented that they hope the agreement will lead to more formal scientific and technological cooperation between the two nations. Greek Alternate Minister for Research & Innovation Costas Fotakis commented, “scientific diplomacy is an effective tool that can strengthen the relations between Greece and North Macedonia, as well as the Western Balkans in general. This agreement is very timely, especially considering that several research themes are of mutual interest in both countries.” 

(Julianna Photopoulos, Nature)

The modern tragedy of fake cancer cures

The news media can sometimes sensationalize and overclaim the results of scientific advances. This is especially dangerous when results have yet to be vetted by the peer-review process, as was the case when the Dan Aridor, chairman of a small biotechnology company in Israel claimed, “we believe we will offer in a year’s time a complete cure for cancer.” The story, published by the Jerusalem Post, made bold and likely unattainable claims that the new technology would have no side-effects, be less expensive than current therapies, and be “effective from day one.” However, the new treatment has so far only been tested in a single study in mice. Furthermore, it has not yet been published and therefore has not been scrutinized or validated by other scientists in the field of cancer research. 

The claims made by Aridor may just his optimism and faith in his product, but if taken at face value they are completely unbelievable. For one thing, the original article points out that the company has not yet started clinical trials, which would take years to complete, negating the hope of a cure within a year’s time. But even those clinical trials are not likely to succeed. The odds that a cancer therapy will successfully pass clinical trials is 3-5%, according to data from MIT and the Biotechnology Industry Organization. However, even the hurdle of getting from animal studies to clinical trials is not to be overlooked, which can easily take over five years.

Cancer therapies are still worth the investment of time and money. Successful drugs like Keytruda have made a large impact on those suffering from the cancer. However, therapies do not perform the same in every patient, and ‘cancer’ is not just one disease. Often, proper dosing of cancer therapies involves a balance between the effectiveness of the treatment and the harm of the side effects. Thus, it is unlikely that a single treatment will cure all cancers without a hitch, as boldly claimed by Aridor. It is much more realistic that some treatments will work for particular types of cancers more effectively than others, with limited side effects. Speaking more conservatively about the new treatment, the CEO of the company, Ilan Morad, commented that while the company believes their therapy will cure cancer, “we still have a long way to go.”

(Matthew Herper, STAT)

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February 5, 2019 at 12:22 pm

Science Policy Around the Web – February 1, 2019

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By: Caroline Duncombe, B.S.

Source: Pixabay

How old emails hold new clues to Coca-Cola and CDC’s controversial relationship

The mission of the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC) is to protect America from health, safety, and security threat. Yet, private emails obtained through the Freedom of Information Act reveal that a Coca-Cola Company’s influence over the federal agency refutes such a mission. Email correspondences between top CDC officials and Coca-Cola employees exposed how the soda giant tried to push the World Health Organization (WHO) to emphasize exercise over diet as the solution to the obesity epidemic via CDC’s influencing power.

            Within the 295 pages of communications from 86 emails was a request by former Coca-Cola senior vice president Alex Malaspina that WHO “should not only consider sugary foods as the only cause of obesity but consider also the lifestyle changes that have been occurring throughout the universe.” Other uncovered emails revealed that the former CDC director of Division for Heart and Disease, Barbara Bowman, gave advice to a Coca-Cola executive on potential contacts that have influence over WHO’s regional office and then director-general Dr. Margaret Chan.

            Though Coca-Cola enacted a policy in 2015 to disclose on its website its funding portfolio for scientific research and partnerships. There is little to no federal oversight over sugar and beverage industries. This is a startling fact when considering the extent of the obesity epidemic in America and the significant role that sugary drinks play in augmenting such an epidemic. After the revelation of the relationship between Coca-Cola and the CDC, discussions have increased on restricting direct contact between federal agencies and soda giants. 

(Jacqueline Howard, CNN)

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February 1, 2019 at 4:24 pm