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Science Policy Around the Web – June 21st, 2019

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By Neetu Gulati Ph.D.

Image by Kathy Bugajsky from Pixabay 

Tech disorder? Smartphones linked to bizarre horn-like skull bumps

Two Australian researchers published a study inScientific Reports this year with an unusual discovery: people are growing horn-like bone spurs at the base of their skulls. They found these protrusions on around 400 adults aged 18 to 86, and larger growths were found among younger people. Bone spurs usually do not cause pain or require treatment, but if they become too large can become a problem.

While the study originally did not get much press, it has broken headlines recently after a BBC article covering how modern life is transforming the human body. The authors in the original research article hypothesized these bone spurs could be due to “sustained aberrant postures associated with the emergence and extensive use of hand-held contemporary technologies, such as smartphones and tablets.”

While the article has led to sensationalized media accounts, some experts have questioned the validity of the conclusions, saying the study lacks a control group and cannot prove cause and effect between the spurs and technology. Furthermore, there may be bias in the study because the subjects are people with enough neck problems to warrant visiting a chiropractic clinic, where the authors of the study work.

Regardless of the exact cause of the bone spurs, numerous cases of “texting neck” ailments and similar problems have occurred as technology use as increased since the early 2000s. Dr. David Geier, an orthopedic surgeon, commented that the study “isn’t going to convince people not to use their phone. But small changes like putting pillows under our laptops and holding the phone or tablet higher up and away from our laps can promote better posture.” Others, such as Dr. Evan Johnson, an assistant professor and director of physical therapy at the New York-Presbyterian Och Spine Hospital, commented that the bone spur “is a really big ‘So what?’ moment… The fact that you have this little bony projection in your skull, that means nothing.” It will be important to see if these projections get worse over time, to the point of leading to pain.

(Dr. Shamard Charles, NBC News

Type A blood converted to universal donor blood with help from bacterial enzymes

Donor blood plays a critical role in the healthcare system. However, there is a constant shortage of blood for transfusions around the world. Blood shortages are made more complicated because blood transfusions cannot be done with just any blood, the patient and donor blood types must be compatible or else the recipient’s body can have a deadly immune response to the donor blood. The immune system recognizes specific sugar molecules on the surface of red blood cells, which denote blood as one of the four types: A, B, AB, or O. Blood type O is coveted as universal donor blood, because it lacks these unique sugar molecules, also known as antigens, so they are not recognized as “foreign” in a patient’s body, even when given to people with other blood types. 

Now, researchers have discovered a way to convert type A blood to type O, using a combination of two bacterial enzymes to remove the “A-defining” antigens. Harvey Klein, a blood transfusion expert at the National Institutes of Health, commented on the work, “this is a first, and if these data can be replicated, it is certainly a major advance.”

Previous attempts by researchers to remove the A-defining antigens from blood have had limited success, because the enzymes used were not very efficient. In the most recent study, bacterial enzymes identified from a human stool sample removed the sugars in human blood efficiently using only tiny amounts of the enzymes. If these findings can be translated to practical application, the amount of universal donor blood could nearly double, as type A blood makes up approximately 1/3 of the blood supply. To get to that point, more work needs to be done to confirm that these enzymes are not altering anything else in the blood.

(Elizabeth Pennisi, Science)

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Written by sciencepolicyforall

June 21, 2019 at 2:59 pm

Breast cancer screening: How do we maximize benefit while minimizing harm?

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By: Catherine Lerro, Ph.D., M.P.H.

Image by Bruno Glätsch from Pixabay 

Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed tumor in US women, and the second leading cause of cancer death in women with an estimated 268,600 diagnoses and 41,760 deaths predicted for 2019. Despite these seemingly sobering numbers, mortality due to breast cancer has declined over the past several decades. Today, women diagnosed with early stage disease are about 99% as likely to be alive five years after their diagnosis as cancer-free women. These declines in cancer death have been largely attributed to both improvements in treatment and successful implementation of mammography (breast x-ray) screening programs, considered a hallmark of preventative cancer care. Some researchers estimate that upward of 380,000 breast cancer deaths have been averted since 1989 due to mammography and improved breast cancer treatment. In fact, the Affordable Care Act has provisions to ensure that women with private health insurance, public health insurance (e.g. Medicare, Medicaid), or health insurance purchased through a state exchange are covered for breast cancer screening. 

The idea behind mammographic screening is that breast cancers diagnosed at an early stage are more likely to respond well to treatment, preventing cancer-related death. While not all cancers have population-wide screening programs, breast cancer is a good candidate for screening. First, breast cancer is common enough to warrant subjecting women to a mammogram at regular intervals during a defined period of known risk. If a disease is very rare, it is likely not a good candidate for population-wide screening because the costs would outweigh the potential benefit. Second, there must be a good test available that is both sensitive and specific. In other words, the test should detect as many true cases as possible, while minimizing the number of patients with false-positives that require more invasive testing such as a biopsy. Finally, there must be some benefit to detecting disease early. For breast cancer, women with early stage disease may be more easily treated and have better prognosis compared to women with distant-stage disease.

Currently, mammograms are recommended for much of the adult female population in the US over the age of 50. Many different organizations release breast cancer screening guidelines on a regular basis including (but not limited to) the US Preventive Task Force, the American Cancer Society, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the American College of Radiology. While the recommendations share some similarities, there are important differences and no one guideline is universally accepted. For example, for women ages 50-74, the US Preventative Task Force recommend biennial mammograms, while the American College of Radiology recommends yearly mammograms. These differences may arise from the data used to develop the guidelines and how the data are valued. For example, the US Preventive Task Force counts mortality reduction as the soul benefit of mammography and considers potential risks such as false-positive tests. The American College of Radiology considers other mammography benefits outside of morality reduction such as less aggressive treatment for early stage cancers. The American College of Radiology also have recently amended their guidelines to consider race, with the option to screen African American women, who are at greater risk of more aggressive breast cancers, starting at younger ages at the discretion of both the patient and physician. 

Understanding how and if breast cancer screening guidelines are integrated into clinical practice is a murkier area still. In recent years, most major guidelines recommend less routine screening and have endorsed a more individualized approach that involves discussion of the benefits and harms of screening and incorporates patient preferences and beliefs, especially for younger women. However, studies have found that despite these changes in recommendations, breast cancer screening in practice in the US has changed very little. This may be driven by US health system traits, such as fee-for-service payment systems and concerns about litigation. Furthermore, both clinicians and patients may overestimate the benefits and underestimate the harms of mammography, particularly for younger women.

The benefits of diagnosing breast cancer early cannot be overstated, as response to treatment and survival depends greatly on stage at diagnosis. However, the potential harms of screening are often overlooked. Of course, there are economic costs incurred for any wide-scale screening program. Just as importantly, we should seriously consider the physical and emotional costs of overdiagnosis and overtreatment. A 2018 report in the Journal of the American Medical Association found that for every 10,000 women screened for breast cancer, more than half under the age of 60 will experience a false positive test result. Almost 10% of women will undergo at least one unnecessary biopsy. Additionally, the authors demonstrated that through screening more women were potentially overdiagnosed (cancers diagnosed and treated that would have never become clinically evident) than deaths were averted. There may be psychological consequences to false positive test results, including both short-term and long-term anxiety. Unnecessary biopsy and overdiagnosis could potentially have long-term physical health consequences that would otherwise be avoided. 

How do we improve mammography screening in the US, maximizing the benefits while minimizing the risks? What is clear is that there is no simple solution. In a health system that largely favors more testing at potential cost to patients, institutional changes in how health insurance reimburses clinicians for care should consider looking beyond fee-for-service models. The newest breast cancer screening guidelines also favor individualized approaches, prioritizing screening among high-risk women and educating patients about the potential benefits and harms of screening with full consideration of their own medical history and preferences. Clinicians may consider tools that utilize detailed patient information to assess an individual patient’s risk of breast cancer, as well as tools soliciting patient preferences that support shared decision-making. Finally, it is important that all women requiring regular mammograms have access to breast cancer screening and high-quality treatment regardless of age, race, geographic location, or socioeconomic status, in order to minimize disparities in stage at diagnosis and breast cancer survival. 

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May 15, 2019 at 11:30 am

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Recent trends and emerging alternatives for combating antibiotic resistance

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By: Soumya Ranganathan, M.S.

Image by Arek Socha from Pixabay 

Antibiotic resistance is an ongoing and rising global threat. While there is a tendency for bacteria and other microbes to develop resistance to antibiotics and antimicrobials slowly over time, the overuse and abuse of antibiotics has accelerated this effect and has led to the current crisis. The new Global Antimicrobial Surveillance System (GLASS), developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), reveals antibiotic resistance is found in 500,000 people with suspected infections across 22 countries. A study supported by the UK government and the Wellcome Trust estimates that antimicrobial resistance (AMR) could lead to an annual death toll of about 10 million by 2050. It is also predicted to have a huge economic impact and could cost 100 trillion USD between 2017 and 2050

Factors underlying the non-targeted use of antibiotics

Prescribing the right antibiotic for an infection takes about a week due to the process of identifying the infectious agent. To avoid the spread of infection, physicians are forced to make a prognosis prior to agent identification, and typically prescribe a broad-spectrum antibiotic. Since the broad-spectrum antibiotics act against a wide range of bacterial strains, their rampant use has led to the emergence of bacterial strains which are resistant to even the most potent antibiotics available. This trend has caused difficulty in treating previously curable hospital acquired infections and other benign infections. Not only is the discovery of new antibiotics is complicated (only one new class of antibiotics has been developed in the past three decades), the development of antibiotics, from discovery to medicine,  also in general takes about 1 to 2 decades. Here we will explore certain alternative strategies scientists all around the world are pursuing in their fight against antibiotic resistance. 

Antibiotic Susceptibility Test  

Reducing the time between a patient becoming ill and receiving treatment is critical for containing and effectively treating the infection. A part of this process that is currently required entails making improvements to the antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) system, which typically has two steps: (i) Identifying the infectious agent and (ii) Identifying the most effective antibiotic to treat the infection.

Conceptually, new and rapid AST systems have been proposed and developed thanks to advancements in phenotyping methods, digital imaging and genomic approaches. But a plethora of factors act as roadblocks for implementing rigorous and standardized AST systems worldwide. A recently published consensus statement explores the major roadblocks for the development and effective implementation of these technologies while also suggesting ways to move past this stalemate. The major points of the statement are summarized below. 

  • Regulation– Since different regions and countries have their own requirements for marketing and validating a diagnostic method, the onus is on the developers to meet various demands. This also requires harmonization and cooperation among policy makers to formulate and agree on a standard set of rules.
  • Collection and dissemination of information regarding various strains and antibiotics– Antibiograms are a summary of antimicrobial susceptibility rates for selected pathogens to a variety of antimicrobial drugs, provide comprehensive information about the local antibiotic resistance. The challenge here lies in making the data available in real time and in developing a “smart antibiogram”.This is necessary to perform quicker analysis of samples and to reduce the time to treat which eventually translates to increase in lives saved. 
  • Cost involved in developing new, sensitive, and faster diagnostics– Though current diagnostics are cheap they are slow in identifying pathogenic bacteria. The transition to more advanced and sensitive diagnostics has been slow since their developmenttake time and incur more cost. However, this scenario is likely to change soon with the rising levels of antibiotic resistance that are making existing diagnostics obsolete, effectuating more investment in this sector. 

Antivirulence therapy

Small molecules are gaining prominence as an alternative or as adjuvants to antibiotic treatments. Recently, researchers from Case Western University have developed two small molecules F19 and F12 that show promise in the treatment of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) infection in mouse models. The small molecules bind to a Staph. aureustranscription factor called AgrA, deterring it from making toxic proteins and rendering the bacteria harmless. Treatment with F19 on its own resulted in 100% survival rate in a murine MRSA bacteremia/sepsis model while only 30% of untreated mice survived. This kind of antivirulence therapy allows the immune system to clear the pathogens (since the bacteria are essentially harmless) without increasing pressure to develop resistance. When used as an adjuvant with antibiotic, F19 resulted in 10X times lesser bacteria in the mouse bloodstream than treatment with antibiotic alone. This kind of combination therapy can be used on immunocompromised patients. It has also been effective against other bacterial species such as Staph. epidermidis, Strep. pyogenes, and Strep. pneumoniaeand may act as arsenal for a broad variety of gram-positive bacterial infections. Overall the small molecule approach could also bring many of the previously shelved antibiotics back to use as they provide means to improve their efficacy in treating bacterial infections. Another class of engineered proteins called Centyrins show promise to treat Staph. aureusinfection using a similar mechanism, as they bind to the bacterial toxins and prevent them from disrupting the immune system. 

Molecular Boosters

Stanford University chemists (study published in Journal of the American Chemical Society) have developed a booster molecule called r8 which when used in combination with vancomycin (first line antibiotic used for MRSA infections), helps the antibiotic penetrate the biofilm and remain for a long time, enabling it to attack pathogens once they resurge from their dormant stage. This small molecule booster approach could be pursued further to provide existing antibiotics with additional abilities in sieging the pathogens and arresting the spread of infections.

Photobleaching

A recent collaborative effort by scientists from Purdue University and Boston University has resulted in an innovative light-based approach called photobleaching (using light to alter the activity of molecules) to treat certain bacterial infections. Photobleaching of MRSA using low-level blue (460nm) light has been found to lead to the breakdown of STX, an antioxidant (pigment) found in the membrane of bacteria. Since STX protects the bacteria against neutrophils (a class of white blood cells involved in body’s immune mechanism), prior attempts have been made using medication to eliminate the STX but those efforts have been futile. Photolysis of STX leads to transient increase in the permeability of bacterial membrane, rendering them more susceptible to even mild antiseptics like hydrogen peroxide and other reactive oxygen species. Since pigmentation is a “hallmark of multiple pathogenic microbes” this technology could be extended for use in other microbes to tackle resistance. In addition to advantages such as ease of use and development, photobleaching could also be used with minimal or no adverse side effects. 

Antisense Therapy

One of the consequences of the non-targeted use of antibiotics to treat infections has been the occurrence of C.difficileinfection in the colon. This condition is due to the elimination of useful bacteria along with the harmful bacteria in the gut. To tackle this infection, Dr. Stewart’s team from the University of Arizona has developed an antisense therapy which act by silencing genes responsible for the survival of pathogenic bacteria while sparing other useful bacteria in the gut. This strategy involves using molecules with two components – an antisense oligonucleotide moiety that targets the genetic material in C.diffand a carrier compound to transport the genetic material into the bacterium. Though this treatment approach shows potential in providing a targeted, less-toxic, nimble and cost-effective alternative against existing and evolving pathogens, clinical trials must be undertaken to see its effects in practice.

Future perspectives

In addition to the aforementioned strategies, the scientific community is pursuing immune modulation therapy, host-directed therapy, and probiotics to deal with the current AMR crisis. The problem with developing new antibiotics is that microbes will eventually develop resistance to them. Though time will reveal the approaches that are truly effective in evading antibiotic resistance, the looming threat must be dealt with prudently. A holistic approach to restrict and channel the targeted use of antibiotics while pursuing alternative therapies must be adopted by the clinicians, researchers, companies, global health experts, public and policy makers to curb the resistance emergency.

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April 26, 2019 at 4:35 pm

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Science Policy Around the Web – April 12, 2019

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By: Saurav Seshadri, PhD

Photo by Elijah Hiett on Unsplash

With Vertex, NHS back at the pricing table, CF advocates ratchet up the pressure

petition demanding coverage of the cystic fibrosis (CF) drug Orkambi in the UK has now garnered over 100,000 signatures, and must therefore be considered by Parliament for debate.  The milestone is the latest development in the struggle between Orkambi maker Vertex Pharmaceuticals and the British government, which began soon after Orkambi was approved in 2015.  The main point of contention is the price of the drug.  The UK’s National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) has refused to recommend Orkambi at Vertex’s asking price of £104,000 ($136,000) per patient per year, but Vertex has rejected the UK’s offer of £500 million for 5 years’ access, leaving both parties at an impasse.

The UK is not the first country to clash with Vertex over pricing. Several health agencies have refused to pay for Orkambi on the grounds that it is only marginally effective; some now face lawsuits, as programs like Medicaid are required to provide available drugs for qualifying patients.  While Orkambi is not as effective as Vertex’s first drug Kalydeco, it can be prescribed to more patients (up to 50% of those with CF).  Life expectancy for patients with CF is less than 40 years, and many patients are children, so even small improvements can be life-changing.  However, as with the multiple sclerosis drug Ocrevus, NICE seems unlikely to relent; on the contrary, UK Health Minister Matt Hancock recently accused Vertex of ‘hold[ing] the NHS to ransom’ and ‘profiteering’.  

For its part, Vertex is unlikely to compromise on the price of its best-selling drug, which brought in $1.26 billion in 2018.  CEO Jeffrey Leiden insists that this revenue is critical to the company’s continued investment in CF research.  Ironically, this stance may be pushing the UK closer to a measure that would jeopardize all future medical R&D efforts: invoking ‘Crown’ use, which allows the government to sell a patent without the consent of its owner. While the idea has gained support among some British lawmakers, and has been used in the past (to make Pfizer-owned antibiotic tetracycline available in the 1960s), it would face legal challenges that could render it ineffective.  But with public pressure mounting, especially after Vertex recently admitted to destroying almost 8,000 packs of Orkambi amid the standoff, inaction may not be an option for much longer.

(Eric Sagonowsky, FiercePharma)


Why some low-income neighborhoods are better than others

A recent study, published in PNAS, builds upon a body of evidence that while race can influence upward mobility (with white children having a 4-fold higher chance of moving from the lowest to highest income brackets than their black peers), environmental factors also play a major role.  Previous work demonstrated that the neighborhood in which a child grows up has a large effect on their future success, with better outcomes for children raised in low-poverty neighborhoods, regardless of race.  However, black children are significantly less likely to live in such neighborhoods.  To combat racial inequality, it is critical to understand which aspects of poverty impact long-term socioeconomic progress. 

The new study is based on the Opportunity Atlas, and pulls together data from tax returns, Census surveys, police reports, prison admission records, and blood tests conducted by the health department. The data tracks a cohort of children born in 1978-1983 (age 31-37 in 2014), living in 754 Census tracts in Chicago.  The authors report that even after controlling for other variables, a large proportion of the racial disparity observed in adults can be explained by three factors: violence, incarceration, and lead exposure during adolescence.  Since these factors were highly correlated with each other, the authors combined them into a single ‘neighborhood harshness/toxicity’ factor; this variable proved to be a much stronger predictor of income, incarceration, and teen pregnancy than more traditional factors, such as poverty or college education rates.   

That these elements impair social mobility is perhaps not surprising, as exposure to both violence in the community and high levels of lead have both been linked to cognitive impairment. But the magnitude of the effect is striking: for example, according to their model, toxicity exposure could account for 60% of the difference in incarceration rates between black and white men in their sample, and a 10% increase in teen births among black women.  While the authors acknowledge they cannot establish causality, they conclude that ‘Chicago’s residential segregation is disproportionately exposing its black children to neighborhoods that are hazardous to their development’.  Recently elected mayor Lori Lightfoot ran on a platform that includes stopping violence, expanding affordable housing, and ‘investing in our neighborhoods’.  Insight into the mechanisms that perpetuate inequality can only enhance these policies’ power to improve the trajectories of vulnerable kids.      

(Sujata Gupta, Science News


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April 12, 2019 at 5:21 pm

Science Policy Around the Web – March 22, 2019

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By: Caroline Duncombe.

Image by 1388843 from Pixabay

FDA Approves First Drug for Postpartum Depression

In the USA, about 400,000 women develop post-partum depression (PPD) each year. Up until Tuesday, there was no FDA approved pharmaceutical treatment designed specifically for PPD. In attempts to alleviate PPD episodes, doctors previously prescribed drugs designed for general depression, such as selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Such drugs were not specifically designed for PPD which involves distinct mechanisms of action that are directly related to pregnancy and childbirth. SSRIs often take months to achieve remission or adequate response, if ever. Such deficiencies are supposedly addressed by the new drug, brexanolone, marketed at Zulresso, which was designed specifically to address post-partum depression and acheives rapid onset of response alleviation.

Although brexanolone is the first FDA approved treatment for PPD, the long infusion period, the high cost of the treatment, and lacking evidence on the effectiveness of this treatment demonstrate the long road ahead before PPD treatment is ubiquitous and operational. The Brexanolone treatment is not simple: it involves a continuous intravenous (IV) infusion over the course of 60 hours. Due to the risk of the treatment, patients will be required to stay within an in-patient unit of a hospital for those 2.5 days. Considering that the treatment alone cost $34,000 for a full course, the additional cost of in-patient care would make this treatment inaccessible for many who demonstrate severe PPD. Some insurance providers may decide to cover the treatment cost, but for those who do not have insurance or are denied coverage this treatment will be inaccessible.

Additionally, the FDA approval application was largely informed by a flawed phase III clinical trial funded by Sage Pharmaceuticals, the producer of Zulresso. The trial only included 246 participants, which is a relatively small sample size for a phase III trial. A large sample size is important to providing a conclusive clinical trial result on drug side-effects. This is crucial because if a severe side effect is found within 1 in every 1000 participants (or 1 in 10,000, etc) that level of risk would most likely not be detected within a trial only enrolling 246 participants. Additionally, this specific trial compared participants to a placebo, and not existing treatment standards of anti-depressants like SSRIs. The trail also only assessed the women volunteers over a 30-day follow-up period post infusion, which means that the lasting effects beyond the first month of Brexanolone are still unknown.

Further research on Brexanolone will be necessary to definitively assess its impact of reducing PPD. At this moment Sage Therapeutics is also implementing a phase III trialon a PPD treatment drug that is structurally similar to Bexanolone but is capable of being administered via a pill. If successful, such a drug could make treatment for post-partum depression more accessible to all. 

(Pam Belluck, New York Times)



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March 22, 2019 at 5:24 pm

Science Policy Around the Web – February 5, 2019

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By: Neetu Gulati, Ph.D.

Source: Pixabay

Macedonia name change paves way for science cooperation with Greece

Greece and the Republic of Macedonia have been at odds for decades over the name of the latter country. After the dissolution of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s, the nation known colloquially as Macedonia was founded. However, because a region in northern Greece shares a name with the republic, Greece has disputed the country’s name, and tried to bar its entry to international organizations such as NATO and the UN. The Prespa Agreement, ratified by the Republic of Macedonia on January 11, 2019 and Greece on January 25, 2019, is set to relieve tensions by changing the disputed country name to ‘The Republic of North Macedonia,’ and the short name of ‘North Macedonia.’

The Prespa Agreement not only ends the political stand-off between the two nations, but also opens the door for strategic partnerships in many ventures, including science. While some people opposed the Agreement, scientists in both nations welcomed the change, commenting that political tensions and bureaucratic procedures will hopefully no longer hinder collaboration. “Science is done by people, and many people were affected by the mutually negative spirit among the two countries that prevailed in the past years,” commented Ioanna Chouvarda, a Greek scientist.

Many are hopeful that the name change will positively impact scientific and diplomatic ties between the two nations. A spokesperson for the Republic of Macedonia’s science ministry commented that they hope the agreement will lead to more formal scientific and technological cooperation between the two nations. Greek Alternate Minister for Research & Innovation Costas Fotakis commented, “scientific diplomacy is an effective tool that can strengthen the relations between Greece and North Macedonia, as well as the Western Balkans in general. This agreement is very timely, especially considering that several research themes are of mutual interest in both countries.” 

(Julianna Photopoulos, Nature)

The modern tragedy of fake cancer cures

The news media can sometimes sensationalize and overclaim the results of scientific advances. This is especially dangerous when results have yet to be vetted by the peer-review process, as was the case when the Dan Aridor, chairman of a small biotechnology company in Israel claimed, “we believe we will offer in a year’s time a complete cure for cancer.” The story, published by the Jerusalem Post, made bold and likely unattainable claims that the new technology would have no side-effects, be less expensive than current therapies, and be “effective from day one.” However, the new treatment has so far only been tested in a single study in mice. Furthermore, it has not yet been published and therefore has not been scrutinized or validated by other scientists in the field of cancer research. 

The claims made by Aridor may just his optimism and faith in his product, but if taken at face value they are completely unbelievable. For one thing, the original article points out that the company has not yet started clinical trials, which would take years to complete, negating the hope of a cure within a year’s time. But even those clinical trials are not likely to succeed. The odds that a cancer therapy will successfully pass clinical trials is 3-5%, according to data from MIT and the Biotechnology Industry Organization. However, even the hurdle of getting from animal studies to clinical trials is not to be overlooked, which can easily take over five years.

Cancer therapies are still worth the investment of time and money. Successful drugs like Keytruda have made a large impact on those suffering from the cancer. However, therapies do not perform the same in every patient, and ‘cancer’ is not just one disease. Often, proper dosing of cancer therapies involves a balance between the effectiveness of the treatment and the harm of the side effects. Thus, it is unlikely that a single treatment will cure all cancers without a hitch, as boldly claimed by Aridor. It is much more realistic that some treatments will work for particular types of cancers more effectively than others, with limited side effects. Speaking more conservatively about the new treatment, the CEO of the company, Ilan Morad, commented that while the company believes their therapy will cure cancer, “we still have a long way to go.”

(Matthew Herper, STAT)

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February 5, 2019 at 12:22 pm

Science Policy Around the Web – February 1, 2019

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By: Caroline Duncombe, B.S.

Source: Pixabay

How old emails hold new clues to Coca-Cola and CDC’s controversial relationship

The mission of the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC) is to protect America from health, safety, and security threat. Yet, private emails obtained through the Freedom of Information Act reveal that a Coca-Cola Company’s influence over the federal agency refutes such a mission. Email correspondences between top CDC officials and Coca-Cola employees exposed how the soda giant tried to push the World Health Organization (WHO) to emphasize exercise over diet as the solution to the obesity epidemic via CDC’s influencing power.

            Within the 295 pages of communications from 86 emails was a request by former Coca-Cola senior vice president Alex Malaspina that WHO “should not only consider sugary foods as the only cause of obesity but consider also the lifestyle changes that have been occurring throughout the universe.” Other uncovered emails revealed that the former CDC director of Division for Heart and Disease, Barbara Bowman, gave advice to a Coca-Cola executive on potential contacts that have influence over WHO’s regional office and then director-general Dr. Margaret Chan.

            Though Coca-Cola enacted a policy in 2015 to disclose on its website its funding portfolio for scientific research and partnerships. There is little to no federal oversight over sugar and beverage industries. This is a startling fact when considering the extent of the obesity epidemic in America and the significant role that sugary drinks play in augmenting such an epidemic. After the revelation of the relationship between Coca-Cola and the CDC, discussions have increased on restricting direct contact between federal agencies and soda giants. 

(Jacqueline Howard, CNN)

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February 1, 2019 at 4:24 pm