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Posts Tagged ‘reproductive health

Science Policy Around the Web November 29th, 2019

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By Maria Disotuar, PhD

Source: Pixneo

To Drive Down Insulin Prices, W.H.O. Will Certify Generic Versions

Without insulin, a person with type 1 diabetes cannot survive, and the cost and accessibility to insulin continues to be a problem for individuals suffering from this incurable autoimmune disease. Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by high blood glucose levels. There are two types of diabetes, Type 1 diabetes results from the loss of pancreatic β-cell function, resulting in an inability to produce insulin, a peptide-based hormone. On the other hand, Type 2 diabetes patients are resistant to insulin. Those suffering from Type 1 diabetes require daily insulin therapy to stay alive, and patients with type 2 diabetes require insulin therapy to maintain a healthy lifestyle. Currently, more than 400 million people worldwide have diabetes and this number is expected to increase in the coming years. The main problem being that there are no generic forms of insulin and the price for current insulin analogs has gone from approximately $20 per vial to $250 per vial depending on the type of insulin. This price increase over the past 20 years has made insulin unaffordable for many individuals particularly for younger generations of Americans struggling to pay student loans. For these individuals, seeing the price of insulin jump from $4.34 to $12. 92 per milliliter has meant rationing the lifesaving drug to the bare minimum – a deadly decision for some.

As a response to the growing demand for insulin and skyrocketing prices, the World Health Organization (WHO) has proposed a two year prequalification pilot project, which will allow pharmaceutical companies to produce generic insulin to be evaluated by WHO for efficacy and affordability. These types of pilot projects have been previously deployed to improve the accessibility of life saving drugs for malaria, HIV, and tuberculosis. These efforts have led to an increase in production and market competition leading to reduced costs for individuals.

Currently, the major producers of insulin, Eli Lilly, Novo Nordisk, and Sanofi have welcomed the prequalification program, vowing to be a part of the solution not the problem. According to WHO, companies in several countries, including China and India, have already expressed interest in the pilot project. This shift in insulin production would allow companies producing insulin domestically to enter the global market. As WHO-certified suppliers, these new competitors could dramatically drive down the price of insulin and improve accessibility on a global scale. Despite this positive global outlook, there are still some hurdles to cross for Americans to obtain these generic insulin products. The main one being that the pharmaceutical market is regulated by the FDA and the review process can be expensive for smaller companies. Nonetheless, Americans are fighting back to reduce the cost of insulin and other life savingdrugs, prompting lawmakers, presidential candidates, and the President to prioritize reduced drug prices for Americans. These mounting pressures will hopefully lead to a faster solution for this life or death situation.

(Donald G. McNeil Jr., The New York Times)

Will Microneedle Patches Be the Future of Birth Control?

In 2018, the The Lancet reported that between 2010 and 2014 44% of all pregnancies in the world were unplanned. Despite medical advances in sexual and reproductive health, new contraceptive methods are needed to expand accessibility and improve reliability for women. In the United States, the establishment of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and health policies such as the Federal Contraceptive Coverage Guarantee, which requires private health plans to include coverage for contraceptives and sexual health services, has improved family planning for women of reproductive age. Despite the social and economic benefits of improved family planning and enhanced accessibility, conservatives continue to challenge these beneficial health policies. Unfavorable changes to these policies could result in major barriers for women to access some of the most effective, yet pricier forms of contraceptives such as intrauterine devices (IUDs) and implants. Studies show these long-acting forms of birth control are up to 20 times more effective in preventing unintended pregnancies than shorter-acting methods such as the pill or ring. Thus, new long-term contraceptives with reduced cost barriers would be essential in reducing unintended pregnancies and enhancing economic benefits on a global scale.

To address this issue, researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology and University of Michigan in partnership with Family Health International (FHI) – a non profit human development organization, have developed a long-acting contraceptive administered by a patch containing biodegradable microneedles. The patch is placed on the surface of the skin and the microneedles painlessly come into contact withinterstitial fluid resulting in the formation of carbon dioxide bubbles, which allow the microneedles to detach from the patch within 1 minute of application. The needles themselves do not introduce a new contraceptive hormone, rather they provide levonorgestrel (LNG), which is regularly used in IUDs and has been deemed as safe and efficacious. After dissociation from the patch the needles slowly release LNG into the bloodstream. 

Thus far, the pharmacokinetics of the patches has been tested on rats and a placebo version has been tested in humans to test the separation process between the patch and the needles. The in vivo animal studies indicate the patch is able to maintain LNG concentrations at acceptable levels for more than one month and the placebo patch was well tolerated among study participants with only 10% reporting transient pain or redness at the site of patch application. Lastly, the researchers analyzed conceptions and acceptability of this new contraceptive method among American, Indian, and Nigerian women compared to oral contraceptives and monthly contraceptive injections administered by a physician. The results indicate women overwhelmingly preferred the microneedle patch method over the daily pill (90%) or monthly injections (100%). The researchers expect the patch to be simple to mass produce and a low-cost contraceptive option, which will reduce cost barriers and improve accessibility for women. Although the results of the study are promising, additional studies will have to be completed to address some of its limitations. Future studies will have to increase the number of animals used in the study and the number of human participants. Additionally, the release profile for LNG will likely need to be extended beyond 1-month to truly address the need for new long-acting forms of contraceptives. Finally, clinical trials will have to be completed to test the efficacy and general reliability of this method at reducing unintended pregnancies. If the microneedle patch is approved, it would be the first self-administered long-term birth control to enter the market, which could ultimately lead to enhanced accessibility for women with limited access to health care.

(Claire Bugos, Smisothian) 

Science Policy Around the Web – August 30, 2012

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photo credit: randihausken via photo pin cc

By: Rebecca Cerio

Our weekly linkpost, bringing you interesting and informative links on science policy issues buzzing about the internet.

NIH Principal Investigators Are Getting Old – Daniel Lende on the Neuroanthropology blog points out the perhaps-disturbing trend in the the newest numbers on the age of NIH-funded scientific investigators (hint, it’s going up):  “The distribution of money has changed, not just the age distribution of researchers, and that has serious consequences for who stays in research-intensive careers, what ideas and initiatives get supported, and what sorts of solutions actually get generated from all those research dollars.”

Gene Blues – Seth Mnookin covers at The New Yorker an interesting study investigating the number of mutations in the sperm of older vs. younger men.  As men get older, the number of new mutations in their sperm cells goes up, increasing the number of mutations inherent in their offspring.  This might not sound like science policy, but this is a classic example of how sociological and cultural changes can directly affect our gene pool and, thus, our health.

In Drought, Should Corn Be Food Or Fuel? – Minnesota Public Radio discusses how the drought this summer devastated the corn crop and also downstream industries such as biofuel manufacturing and the livestock industry.  As quoted in the article, “Jason Hill is a professor of bioproducts and biosystems engineering at the University of Minnesota. He says while roughly half of the nation’s corn supply this year will go to producing ethanol, that ethanol will make up only between 5 and 6 percent of the nation’s fuel consumption.”  Those numbers make some interesting food for thought.

Have an interesting science policy link?  Share it in the comments!

Written by sciencepolicyforall

August 30, 2012 at 3:59 pm