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Science Policy Around the Web August 6th, 2019

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By Allison Dennis B.S.

Image by rawpixel from Pixabay 

Researchers weigh in on Trump’s $500 million plan to share childhood cancer data

Researchers are contemplating developing what they call The Childhood Cancer Data Initiative (CCDI). This approach comes in response to the 10-year $500 million research budget for childhood cancer proposed by President Donald Trump during his January State of the Union Address. Federal officials implementing the proposal have seized on an ongoing effort to transform “big data” into new medical discoveries by looking to expand the sharing of patients’ data to develop new approaches to treat childhood cancers. Currently, patient data can be found spread across state registries, tumor DNA databases, and clinical trial records, obscuring potential insights. 

A symposium held by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) in August 2019, gathered members of the research community to brainstorm the future of the CCDI. Experts made clear the need to first inventory what data already exists, including making efforts to digitally join the five largest existing pediatric cancer databases. Close attention and broad changes will be needed to unify the individual observations being made as children battling cancer make their way through the medical system. Yet despite these big ideas, it is not yet clear that Congress will follow through to appropriate the $50 million down payment needed to kick start CCDI. 

(Jocelyn Kaiser, Science)

 

‘Mosaic’ HIV vaccine to be tested in thousands of people across the world

The ‘mosaic” vaccine is the latest innovation in HIV prevention scheduled to start late-stage clinical trials in September. The experimental vaccine is designed to elicit an immune response to protect against more strains of HIV than any developed so far. The phase III trial (termed “Mosaico”) will be conducted in Europe and the Americas to follow its effectiveness at preventing the transmission of HIV in 3,800 participants, divided evenly into groups receiving four injections of vaccine or placebo. The innovative approach taken by researchers started with engineering a disabled common cold virus to carry pieces of DNA encoding synthetic copies of three HIV genes. The synthetic genes help the body to recognize several different global HIV strains. In addition to the DNA sequences, the vaccine is delivered with two synthetic proteins designed to match HIV strains common in Africa, the Americas, Europe, and Australasia.

Only four HIV vaccines have ever been tested for efficacy in humans. One which initially showed promise but whose efficacy waned over time resulted in a modest 31% difference in rates of infection between groups who received the vaccine compared with placebo. By combining DNA sequences and proteins reflecting a broad diversity of globally circulating HIV strains, the Mosaico team is hoping to give the body an immunological snapshot to prepare it to defend against any strain it might be exposed to. 

(Emiliano Rodriguez Mega, Nature)

 

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August 6, 2019 at 4:47 pm

Science Policy Around the Web – July 12th, 2019

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By Mohor Sengupta, Ph.D.

Source: Maxpixel

CDC made a synthetic Ebola virus to test treatments. It worked

During the 2014-2016 Ebola outbreak in Guinea, West Africa, infectious samples containing the virus were shared by local government with international scientific communities. Using these materials, Dr. Gary Kobinger and his team developed and tested the efficacy of a monoclonal antibody vaccine at the Canadian National Laboratory. The same vaccine, ZMapp, and other therapies are currently being deployed in the most recent Ebola outbreak, which is the second largest outbreak so far. Beginning in ] 2018 in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), this outbreak is still on the roll. Unfortunately, the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) did not have any viral samples this time, meaning they were unable to test the efficacy of ZMapp and other drugs against the recent viral strain. 

Scientists at the CDC, led by Dr. Laura McMullan, constructed an artificial virus from the sequence of the current strain shared by DRC’s National Biomedical Research Institute (INRB). The group used the sequence data to perform reverse genetics and generate the authentic Ebola virus that’s currently infecting scores of people in Ituri and North Kivu provinces of DRC. 

“It takes a lot of resources and a lot of money and a lot of energy to make a cloned virus by reverse genetics. And it would be so much easier if somebody had just sent the isolate”, Dr. Thomas Geisbert, who is not involved in the work, said. 

The CDC group established the efficacy of current treatments (a drug called Remdesivir and the vaccine ZMapp) on the viral strain by using their artificial virus for all the tests. Their work was published Tuesday in the journal Lancet.

For all four Ebola outbreaks that the DRC has seen, healthcare authorities have not shared viral specimens with foreign Ebola researchers. Instead, the whole genome sequence was provided every time. With the whole genome sequence data, the Lancet paper noted that there are at least two Ebola strains in DRC that have independently crossed into the human population.  

Reasons for not sharing viral samples by DRC are not known but it is a roadblock to rapid and efficient treatments in affected geographical regions. McMullan said that shipping of samples across such large distances is often a logistical issue and requires permission from several authorities and coordination of many people. 

 (Helen Branswell, STAT)

Plastic Has A Big Carbon Footprint — But That Isn’t The Whole Story

We are all too familiar with ghastly images of dead whales with plastic-filled stomachs. These images are compounded by pictures of how much waste is generated, such as a picture of a twenty-story high mound of plastic trash in a developing country that appeared in a recent news article. While there is worldwide concern about how to eliminate use of plastics, there is very little discussion about the environmental impact of the materials that will replace plastic. 

Plastic has a high carbon footprint. In a recent report the Center for International Environmental Law (CIEL) has broken down the individual steps of greenhouse gas production, from the beginning of plastic production until it ends up incinerated as a waste. Manufactured from oil and natural gas, plastic production adds to carbon footprint right from its cradle when gases and oils leak into the environment. Subsequently, delivery of raw materials to the production sites further add to the burden. Being among the most energy intensive materials to produce, plastic production takes a heavy toll on energy, water and electricity. Finally, when plastics are incinerated, greenhouse gases end up in the environment. 

But what about the materials that commonly substitute for plastic, such as paper, compostable plastic, canvas or glass? What is their carbon footprint in production stages? Research by several independent groups has revealed that these materials leave an even larger carbon footprint during their production. Data have shown that polyethylene plastic bags not only used lesser fuel and energy throughout production, they also emitted fewer global-warming gases and left lesser mass of solid wastes, when compared with paper bags and with compostable plastic bags. Being more durable than other materials, use of polyethylene bags are more energy friendly than use of paper bags. 

Research done on behalf of the American Chemistry Council has shown that replacing plastic would eventually do more harm to the environment than their use. Finally, consumer habits count. If people don’t reuse plastics, then its advantages over paper cease to exist. Of course, the problem of permanent waste and global health consequences are issues that cannot be overlooked. The solution might lie in using plastics more wisely and re-using them as much as possible. 

(Christopher Joyce, NPR

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July 12, 2019 at 3:18 pm

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Science Policy Around the Web – February 5, 2019

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By: Neetu Gulati, Ph.D.

Source: Pixabay

Macedonia name change paves way for science cooperation with Greece

Greece and the Republic of Macedonia have been at odds for decades over the name of the latter country. After the dissolution of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s, the nation known colloquially as Macedonia was founded. However, because a region in northern Greece shares a name with the republic, Greece has disputed the country’s name, and tried to bar its entry to international organizations such as NATO and the UN. The Prespa Agreement, ratified by the Republic of Macedonia on January 11, 2019 and Greece on January 25, 2019, is set to relieve tensions by changing the disputed country name to ‘The Republic of North Macedonia,’ and the short name of ‘North Macedonia.’

The Prespa Agreement not only ends the political stand-off between the two nations, but also opens the door for strategic partnerships in many ventures, including science. While some people opposed the Agreement, scientists in both nations welcomed the change, commenting that political tensions and bureaucratic procedures will hopefully no longer hinder collaboration. “Science is done by people, and many people were affected by the mutually negative spirit among the two countries that prevailed in the past years,” commented Ioanna Chouvarda, a Greek scientist.

Many are hopeful that the name change will positively impact scientific and diplomatic ties between the two nations. A spokesperson for the Republic of Macedonia’s science ministry commented that they hope the agreement will lead to more formal scientific and technological cooperation between the two nations. Greek Alternate Minister for Research & Innovation Costas Fotakis commented, “scientific diplomacy is an effective tool that can strengthen the relations between Greece and North Macedonia, as well as the Western Balkans in general. This agreement is very timely, especially considering that several research themes are of mutual interest in both countries.” 

(Julianna Photopoulos, Nature)

The modern tragedy of fake cancer cures

The news media can sometimes sensationalize and overclaim the results of scientific advances. This is especially dangerous when results have yet to be vetted by the peer-review process, as was the case when the Dan Aridor, chairman of a small biotechnology company in Israel claimed, “we believe we will offer in a year’s time a complete cure for cancer.” The story, published by the Jerusalem Post, made bold and likely unattainable claims that the new technology would have no side-effects, be less expensive than current therapies, and be “effective from day one.” However, the new treatment has so far only been tested in a single study in mice. Furthermore, it has not yet been published and therefore has not been scrutinized or validated by other scientists in the field of cancer research. 

The claims made by Aridor may just his optimism and faith in his product, but if taken at face value they are completely unbelievable. For one thing, the original article points out that the company has not yet started clinical trials, which would take years to complete, negating the hope of a cure within a year’s time. But even those clinical trials are not likely to succeed. The odds that a cancer therapy will successfully pass clinical trials is 3-5%, according to data from MIT and the Biotechnology Industry Organization. However, even the hurdle of getting from animal studies to clinical trials is not to be overlooked, which can easily take over five years.

Cancer therapies are still worth the investment of time and money. Successful drugs like Keytruda have made a large impact on those suffering from the cancer. However, therapies do not perform the same in every patient, and ‘cancer’ is not just one disease. Often, proper dosing of cancer therapies involves a balance between the effectiveness of the treatment and the harm of the side effects. Thus, it is unlikely that a single treatment will cure all cancers without a hitch, as boldly claimed by Aridor. It is much more realistic that some treatments will work for particular types of cancers more effectively than others, with limited side effects. Speaking more conservatively about the new treatment, the CEO of the company, Ilan Morad, commented that while the company believes their therapy will cure cancer, “we still have a long way to go.”

(Matthew Herper, STAT)

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February 5, 2019 at 12:22 pm

Science Policy Around the Web – February 1, 2019

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By: Caroline Duncombe, B.S.

Source: Pixabay

How old emails hold new clues to Coca-Cola and CDC’s controversial relationship

The mission of the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC) is to protect America from health, safety, and security threat. Yet, private emails obtained through the Freedom of Information Act reveal that a Coca-Cola Company’s influence over the federal agency refutes such a mission. Email correspondences between top CDC officials and Coca-Cola employees exposed how the soda giant tried to push the World Health Organization (WHO) to emphasize exercise over diet as the solution to the obesity epidemic via CDC’s influencing power.

            Within the 295 pages of communications from 86 emails was a request by former Coca-Cola senior vice president Alex Malaspina that WHO “should not only consider sugary foods as the only cause of obesity but consider also the lifestyle changes that have been occurring throughout the universe.” Other uncovered emails revealed that the former CDC director of Division for Heart and Disease, Barbara Bowman, gave advice to a Coca-Cola executive on potential contacts that have influence over WHO’s regional office and then director-general Dr. Margaret Chan.

            Though Coca-Cola enacted a policy in 2015 to disclose on its website its funding portfolio for scientific research and partnerships. There is little to no federal oversight over sugar and beverage industries. This is a startling fact when considering the extent of the obesity epidemic in America and the significant role that sugary drinks play in augmenting such an epidemic. After the revelation of the relationship between Coca-Cola and the CDC, discussions have increased on restricting direct contact between federal agencies and soda giants. 

(Jacqueline Howard, CNN)

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February 1, 2019 at 4:24 pm

Science Policy Around the Web – January 28, 2019

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By: Allison Cross, Ph.D.

Source: Pixabay

A Drug That Eases Miscarriages Is Difficult For Women To Get

The CDC estimates that each year in the U.S. alone, over 1 million women suffer miscarriages during the first trimester of pregnancy.  When a woman finds out that her pregnancy is not viable, she is usually given three options: wait for the miscarriage to occur on its own, take medicine to induce the miscarriage, or undergo a surgical procedure (known as a D&C) to remove the contents of the uterus.  For women who want to avoid a surgical procedure but do not want to wait for the miscarriage to occur on its own, the medically induced miscarriage is a favored option. 

Misoprostol is the medication currently prescribed in the U.S. to induce miscarriage.  Although this medication works for many, a single dose of the medicine is ineffective for about 30% of women.  When the medicine is ineffective, women end up either returning to their doctor for another dose or moving forward with surgery.  However, a recent studyin the New England Journal of Medicine found that combining the currently used medication, misoprostol, with mifepristone is more effective than misoprostol alone in inducing miscarriage.  The study followed 300 women experiencing first trimester pregnancy lose and found the combination of misoprostol and mifepristone increased the chance of successfully inducing miscarriage to 90%, a 14% increase over misoprostol alone. 

Although this new study may provide hope for women suffering an early pregnancy loss and wishing to avoid surgical intervention, most doctors in the U.S. are unable to prescribe mifepristone due to current FDA regulations.  Mifepristone was approved by the FDA in 2000 but is currently regulated under what is known as a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS).  The REMS designation means that the FDA can restrict how and where the medication is distributed.  For mifepristone, the REMS restriction prohibits its availability in commercial pharmacies; the drug can only be distributed from clinics or hospitals designated as mifepristone suppliers.  

As mifepristone is commonly used for abortions, some argue that the REMS designation for the drug is driven by political motives rather than due to concerns about drug safety.  Currently, medical societies including The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the American Academy of Family Physicians and the American Medical Association are trying to overturn the FDA REMS classification of mifepristone.  

(Mara Gordon and Sarah McCammon, NPR)

Ebola Vaccine Supplies Are Expected to Last

The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is currently facing a devasting Ebola outbreak and recently reported 689 confirmed and probable infections and 422 deaths. However, the World Health Organization (WHO) recently announced that they expect to have adequate supplies of an experimental Ebola vaccine to stop the outbreak. 

The experimental vaccine, known as V920, is made by Merck and was first shown to be highly effective in a clinical trial during the West African Ebola crisis of 2014-2016. In the current outbreak, Dr. Peter Salama, WHO’s deputy director-general of emergency preparedness and response, has reported that the vaccine is “highly, highly efficacious”, showing a efficacy rate well above 90%.  

After the West African Ebola crisis of 2014-2016, Merck made an agreement with the WHO and with Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance to maintain a stockpile of 300,000 doses of the vaccine at all times while they worked to get the vaccine licensed. As most Ebola epidemics have been controlled after less than 100 cases, the 300,000-dose stockpile seemed more than sufficient. However, tens of thousands of doses of the vaccine have already been used with the recent outbreak in the DRC, raising concerns that the supply would be depleted.  

Merck’s team lead for the Ebola vaccine project, Beth-Ann Coller, confirmed that in addition to the 100,000 doses of the vaccine that the company has already sent to the WHO, they still have about 300,00 doses on hand. However, due to the uncertainly of around the outbreak, Coller said the company is also exploring options to expand the stockpile further. 

(Helen Branswell, STAT)

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January 29, 2019 at 3:18 pm

Science Policy Around the Web – November 13, 2018

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By: Mohor Sengupta, Ph.D.

Insect-Barley-Midge-Fly-Hessian-640860.jpg

Source: Max Pixel

 

Is The Pentagon Modifying Viruses To Save Crops — Or To Wage Biological Warfare?

Defense Advanced Research Projects (DARPA), a US government agency, has recently been accused of trying to develop bio-weapons on the pretext of using plant viruses and insect vectors to edit crop genes. Dr. Blake Bextine, who is the program manager of the 2016 “Insect Allies” program of DARPA has stated that using virus infected insects to deliver genes to crops, also known as horizontal transfer in scientific jargon, is a potentially powerful and quick measure to protect crops against sudden, unforeseen environmental offenses like drought. Alternative vectors currently in use, such as insecticide sprays, and plant genetic modification strategies, including vertical gene transfer, are either not robust or take several crop generations to become fully functional, he argues. On the other hand, the Insect Allies program’s three-step technical workflow, viral manipulation, insect vector optimization, and selective gene therapy in mature plants, will ensure a quick result, effectively within a generation.

The new plan by DARPA has resulted in international concerns about the ulterior motive for developing viral carriers to infect plants. An editorial published in Science last month by Richard Guy Reeves from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology, in Germany, explicitly states that the DARPA program could be used for potential development of biological weaponry targeting crops of enemy nations. The editorial discusses the profound environmental, biological, economic and social implications of dispersing such horizontal environmental genetic alteration agents (HEGAAs) into ecosystems. Silja Voeneky from University of Freiburg in Germany, who is an expert in international law and a co-author of the commentary, states that according to the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC), which USA ratified in 1975, use of living organisms are banned as war weapons. She doesn’t believe that the proposed Insect Allies program by DARPA will be exclusively restricted towards benefitting crops.

The most important concern raised in the commentary is the proposed use of insects to infect the crops with genetically modified viruses. The authors have questioned the use of insects, a potential bio-weapon, against simpler methods of dissemination, like sprays. The plan by DARPA to use infected insects is probably its response to similar, covert initiatives already in development by other nations towards bio-weaponry, the commentators believe. On the other hand, the authors also see the unveiling of Insect Allies program as the initiation of efforts from various nations to develop similar strategies. Effectively, it has opened the Pandora ’s Box.

Meanwhile, the program is in full swing with DARPA-funded scientists from several institutes participating in the research that will develop the HEGAA technology. One of them, Jane Polston from University of Florida, points out that the new technology can be used in many ways, including ones she can’t predict.

DARPA denied the assertions made by Reeves and his colleagues, stating that they acknowledge that the new technology can have potential dual use but they also have numerous, layered safeguards in place, to maintain biosecurity.

(Dan Charles, NPR)

 

Drug for rare disease disappoints in key trial

Niemann-Pick type C disease (NP-C) is a rare genetic disorder where lipid molecules accumulate in various tissues, like brain, liver or spleen, instead of being recycled or cleared. This inherited condition affects infants, children and adults and an estimated one in 120,000 live births has this condition. The symptoms may vary depending on the organ that has the lipid deposits. Some of the common symptoms are prolonged jaundice, enlarged liver or spleen, learning difficulties and psychiatric problems. Young patients with NP-C commonly present symptoms such as difficulty in maintaining posture and balance and difficulties in swallowing. NP-C is, however, progressive and ultimately fatal.

Mallinckrodt Pharmaceuticals, a USA based company headquartered in St. Louis, Missouri, had been carrying out a 52 week clinical trial of the efficacy of a cyclodextran  (sugar molecule) VTS-270 to limit the progression of NP-C. VTS-270 was brought into clinical trials jointly by National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland and Vtesse, an orphan drug developer based in Gaithersburg, Maryland, that funded the first clinical trial of the drug at the NIH Clinical Center. Vtesse was acquired by Sucampo Pharmaceuticals in March 2017, which, in turn, was acquired by Mallinckrodt, along with the pipeline of the pivotal VTS-270 phase 2/3 trial, earlier this year.

The trial recently came to a disappointing conclusion when no difference in clinical outcomes was found in treatment and placebo groups. The news was first circulated by investors of Mallinckrodt, through whom the families of trial participants came to know of the study results. It was a huge disappointment for these families to learn that this drug was found to be ineffective, after months of invasive treatment and some positive effects observed in several participants.

Steven Romano, the executive vice president of Mallinckrodt and its chief scientific officer told investors on a conference call on last Tuesday that although the expectation was that the treatment group would show slower disease progression than the control group, the study results surprisingly showed that the disease in both groups progressed at a similar rate during the study period, with was lower than the expected rate of progression without any treatment.  

Like most clinical trials, the VTS-270 study used traditional double-blinded and randomized control trial (RCT) statistics to arrive at their conclusions. Also, the participants were assessed only during the 52 week window of the trial, where they received spinal injections of the drug or placebo every two weeks. There are some anomalies in this research protocol, say researchers in the field. A double-blinded, RCT might not be the best method to study extremely rare diseases, where symptoms could overlap vastly with other disorders, leading to a general under-reporting. They say that the “difficulty of enrolling patients may prevent traditional trials from having enough statistical power to achieve predefined statistical significance, even when the experimental agent is actually effective”.

Dr. Mark Patterson, a child neurologist at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, says that the same drug was shown to be effective in studies involving mouse and cat model of the disease. He thinks that the treatment might be effective in some children, but not all of them. Moreover, observing the trial participants only during the one year trial window is not an effective assessment of the disease progression, particularly for a slow-progressing disease like NP-C, he believes. Progression should have been assessed before the commencement of the trial and followed up after the end of the trial to detect an effect of the trial medication versus placebo.

Dr. Patterson has suggested that the FDA should consider setting a different “bar” while assessing therapies for extremely rare and individually variable diseases, like NP-C.

(Meredith Wadman, Science)

 

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November 13, 2018 at 9:07 pm

Science Policy Around the Web – November 9, 2018

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By: Neetu M. Gulati, Ph.D.

vaccination-2722937_1280

Source: Pixabay

 

 The FDA just approved the first new flu treatment in nearly 20 years

In the midst of flu season, there is a new treatment option available for the first time since 1999. On October 24, 2018, the FDA approved the use of a new antiviral drug Xofluza (baloxavir marboxil), for the treatment of influenza (flu) in patients 12 years of age and older who have been symptomatic for fewer than 48 hours. The drug is taken as a single oral dose, and is expected to shorten flu symptoms by more than a day. Now that it has been approved, Xofluza should be available within the next few weeks for purchase according to Genetech, which distributes the medication in the US.

The flu is one of the most common infectious diseases, resulting in 3 to 5 million severe cases annually worldwide. Last year the flu season was particularly deadly, resulting in nearly 80,000 deaths in the US alone according to the CDC. This could be due to a mismatch between the available flu vaccine and circulating strains of the influenza virus. However it could also be attributed to the fact that only about 4 out of every 10 Americans received the flu vaccine during the 2017 season. “With thousands of people getting the flu every year, and many people becoming seriously ill, having safe and effective treatment alternatives is critical. This novel drug provides an important, additional treatment option,” said FDA Commissioner Dr. Scott Gottlieb in a news release about the drug.

Xofluza, the first in a new class of antivirals for treating flu, acts differently than previously approved antiviral medications like Tamiflu. While both classes of antivirals  shorten the duration of infection and can reduce flu symptoms, they have different ways of killing the virus. Xofluza acts by inhibiting the cap-dependent endonuclease protein of the influenza virus, which is essential for viral replication, thus stopping the spread of infection.

This new medication offers a promising new treatment option for individuals with the flu. Nevertheless, Gottlieb warned that antiviral medications like Xofluza are not an alternative to getting vaccinated, saying, “seasonal flu vaccine is one of the most effective and safest ways to protect yourself, your family and your community from the flu and serious flu-related complications, which can result in hospitalizations. Yearly vaccination is the primary means of preventing and controlling flu outbreaks.”

(Angelica LaVito, CNBC)

 

New generation of ‘flow batteries’ could eventually sustain a grid powered by the sun and wind

 

Renewable energy sources have become increasingly popular in recent years. Advancements in renewable technologies lay the groundwork towards a cleaner and more sustainable future. These renewable sources, such as wind and solar power, depend on nature to comply with the energy needs of the masses. But what happens when the sun isn’t shining? In that case, energy companies could turn to a new technology called flow batteries, large devices capable of storing enough electricity to power thousands of homes for many hours.

Flow batteries use tanks of liquid electrolyte that store electric charge. The electrolyte is pumped through electrodes to extract electrons used in electricity, and then spent electrolyte then returns to the tank. When solar panels or wind turbines provide electrons, the pumps push spent electrolyte back to the electrode, where it is recharged and returned to the holding tank. These batteries typically rely on an expensive and rare metal called vanadium for the electrolyte component. Alternatives to vanadium such as zinc-bromine and organic molecules are often short-lived or toxic, limiting their use. However, the price of vanadium has risen in recent years, and so the cost of these batteries may rise as well. The current market for flow batteries is about $230 million and is predicted to grow to nearly $1 billion by 2023.

There is a need for cheap, long-lived, safe alternatives to vanadium in flow batteries. Recently researchers reported developing an organic electrolyte that is much longer-lived than previous attempts at organic liquid electrolytes; this material loses only 3% of its charge-carrying capacity per year. This is a significant improvement over previous organic flow batteries, but still may not be good enough for commercial use. Another alternative electrolyte is iron. Iron is cheap and can grab and give up electrons. However, iron-containing flow batteries currently on the market must be operated at very acidic pH, which raises concerns about environmental damage in the case of a battery leak. Now, researchers have developed iron-containing flow batteries that can be kept at neutral pH. Furthermore, this flow battery shows no signs of degradation after the equivalent of 3 years of use. However, they are less energy-dense than vanadium flow batteries, somewhat limiting their usefulness.

These improvements in battery technology are provide hope for supporting the renewable energy moving forward. However, it remains unclear which electrolyte chemistry, if any, will win out. There is great potential for innovation and growth, but scientists are undoubtedly making progress.

 

(Robert F Service, Science)

 

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November 9, 2018 at 4:16 pm